This article will let readers understand the concept of Hakka first, and how to learn Hakka, and then explain the pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, etc. of Hakka. Learn basic Hakka.
Table of contents
The Hakka language is the mother tongue of the Hakka people (Hakka ethnic group), and it is distributed in a very wide area. The Hakka group is all over the mainland of China (the southeast coast, the south, and the west, for example: 20 million people in Guangdong, 9 million people in Jiangxi, 5 million people in Fujian, 1.5 million people in Hunan, 2 million people in Sichuan, 5 million people in Guangxi, etc.), Hong Kong (more than 60,000 people, mainly concentrated in the New Territories), Taiwan (2.12 million people, mainly concentrated in Taozhumiao, Taizhong area, Liudui region, Huadong Rift Valley, the influence of Hakka in Taiwan is second only to Hokkien in Taiwan) and other overseas immigrants (such as: Mauritius, India, etc.), and the total population of Hakka is about 50 million.
1.1 Hakka usage status
Although the number of users of Hakka is as high as 50 million (including non-native speakers), and among the more than 7,000 languages of human languages, the population of Hakka speakers ranks thirty-fourth in the world, but The number of native speakers of Hakka is only about 40 million. In addition, the number of people who can speak Hakka fluently is less than 30 million. Therefore, the number of native speakers of Hakka is decreasing. , and even Hakka accents or sub-dialects in some places have gradually disappeared.
In mainland China, most of the Hakka people speak Mandarin or Cantonese. Even in traditional Hakka areas, the younger generation only receive Mandarin education since they are not taught in Hakka in schools. Coupled with the popularization of the media, Hakka is rarely used in news. In terms of media and mass entertainment, the proportion of the younger generation of Hakka people using Hakka has decreased, and they have switched to speaking a more powerful language (such as Mandarin or Cantonese).
There are about 1 million Hakka people in Hong Kong (in 2010, including 200,000 to 300,000 original Hakka residents), and the Hong Kong Hakka language used is classified as Cantonese and Taiwanese, because the British Hong Kong government speaks Cantonese in Guangzhou Mandarin is the Chinese language of Hong Kong Chinese, and Cantonese has become a dominant language. Although there are many Hakkas in Hong Kong, most of them have switched to other dominant languages now. Only middle-aged and elderly Hong Kong Hakkas can use Hakka. At present, the number of native speakers of Hakka in Hong Kong is only over 60,000 (accounting for 0.9% of the population of Hong Kong), and about 250,000 people are proficient in Hakka (accounting for 4.7% of Hong Kong). The proportion of Hong Kong people is decreasing year by year.
In Taiwan, because Hokkien is a strong language other than Chinese, and under the influence of mass media and other media, even Hakkas who do not communicate in Hokkien can understand Hokkien, and some Hakkas have switched to Hokkien. However, they have become Holok (currently most of them are elderly), but more people have switched to Chinese (the younger the age group, the more this situation). According to a survey conducted by the Hakka Committee in 2004, 30% of the Hakka people under the age of 30 can understand the Hakka language, but only 10% can use the Hakka language fluently. In terms of family, about 60% of the Hakka people under the age of 30 speak Chinese, and 20% use Hokkien. Less than 10% use Hakka, so some data show that Hakka in Taiwan is considered to be one of the fastest declining human languages in the world. However, in recent years, more and more people have realized the importance of protecting their mother tongue, so the Hakka Committee was established and the "Hakka Basic Law" was formulated, relevant language teaching was promoted in schools, and Hakka TV stations and Hakka radio stations were set up, Hakka certification, mass transportation The tool provides guest language broadcasting services and so on.
As for other regions, such as the Chinese in Malaysia, there are also many Hakka people. The Hakka language is still widely spread, and it is also divided into many language families with different accents. At the same time, it has developed its own language under the influence of local culture and language unique terminology. In addition, the Chinese dialects in Malaysia are also very diverse. Under the mutual exchange and influence of culture and language, no one dialect occupies a strong position of influence. Only because of factors such as geography and historical development, a certain dialect has become widely popular. It is widely used, so in addition to Hakka, Malaysia also has Chinese languages such as Hokkien and Cantonese, and people who use Hakka can also be found in places where these languages are used.
1.2 The linguistic value of Hakka
Hakka is the mother tongue used by the Hakka people, one of the languages used by the Han nationality, and a part of the Chinese culture. At the same time, the Hakka language inherits many elements of ancient Chinese and carries the Hakka culture and characteristics.
The Hakka ethnic group (Hakka) is one of the branches of the Han nationality. It is also one of the ethnic groups with far-reaching influence on the Han nationality. It is also the only Han ethnic group that is not named after a region. It has formed a unique Han ethnicity with both Han culture and minority culture. The historical development and cultural inheritance of the nation can be presented not only through customs and habits, but also language plays an important part. Therefore, if you can deeply understand the meaning behind the language, you can gain a better insight into the context of the entire culture. The traditional Hakka The language (mother tongue) is Hakka.
The Hakka language has inherited many features of ancient Chinese, such as the rhyme endings of entering tones ([-p̚], [-t̚], [-k̚], etc.), especially the Hakka language between Tang and Song Dynasties. The inheritance relationship is also relatively obvious (the Hokkien language retains more ancient Chinese), such as using more modern Chinese (such as: Mandarin, etc.) to recite Tang poetry and Song poetry, etc., which cannot rhyme, but Hakka can rhyme. Therefore, understanding the rhyme of Hakka can better understand the rhyme of poetry, which is helpful for the study of ancient prose. In addition, Hakka also interacts with surrounding languages. For example, Hakka in mainland China interacts with Cantonese and some Hokkien, while Taiwanese Hakka, Taiwanese Hokkien, and Taiwanese aboriginal languages also interact to a certain extent.
The number of Hakkas in Taiwan accounts for about 20% of Taiwan's population (the other seven are Hokkien people, one is aboriginal and other ethnicities), so the Hakka group is the second largest ethnic group in Taiwan (the first is the Hokkien ethnic group) , so it has a place and value in understanding Taiwan's history and humanities. Furthermore, because Taiwan used to ban the speaking of its mother tongue and dialects, the number of Taiwanese Hokkien, Hakka, Aboriginal languages and other languages decreased greatly, so it faced a crisis of language survival, but now in order to protect culture In order to prevent the demise of the language, we began to promote the teaching of native languages and mother tongues, and the Hakka language followed suit. In addition, the Hakka Basic Law also listed Hakka as the national language, and stipulated that areas with half of the Hakka population should use Hakka as the main language (the official language of the public sector), but the bill did not stipulate penalties.
2 Hakka Concept Discussion
The development of human language is often accompanied by factors such as historical context, cultural bearing, and humanistic changes. Therefore, when learning a language, if you can understand the background culture of the language, you will be able to understand the structure, usage, change, or etymology of the language. Have a deeper understanding and experience. Therefore, the following will discuss what Hakka is, where Hakka comes from, and the types of Hakka.
2.1 What is Hakka?
Hakka, commonly known as Hakka, or Hakka for short, is a language of the Chinese branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. It is the language or native language used by the Hakka people (Hakka group, Hakka people). Most of the native-speaking population is distributed in: (1) The traditional Hakka areas, namely the northeast of Guangdong, the south of Jiangxi, and the west of Fujian; (2) The key development areas of Hakka culture in Taiwan, namely Taozhumiao, Liudui and Huadong Rift Valley; (3) Malaysia has Many native speakers; (4) Other regions, including Hong Kong, Singapore, Indonesia (West Kalimantan, Aceh, Subei, Bangka-Belitung, etc.), Vietnam, Thailand, Suriname, India, Bangladesh, and other Chinese Hakka communities not mentioned above, etc.
Although Hakka is a branch of Chinese, if Chinese is regarded as a language, Hakka is the first-level dialect below Chinese, and then divided into many second-level dialects; however, if "Chinese" is regarded as "Chinese" If Hakka is an independent language under the Hakka family, Hakka will be divided into several branches of Hakka dialects. But no matter how it is divided, the Hakka language has the same status as the seven major Chinese families (Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu, Min, Jin, Xiang, Gan, etc.), that is, it is an independent language or a first-level dialect under Chinese. , and it is also a tonal language like other Chinese families.
Distribution of Chinese dialects (including Hakka) in Southeast Asian island countries. (Click on image to enlarge to view original size)
2.2 Origin of Hakka
There are many theories about the origin of the Hakka language, the most common and recognized by the most people who understand the language is a language formed by the Hakka people moving south. Scholar Luo Xianglin believes that the Hakka people actually first immigrated from North China to South China following the many wars and turbulent times in history, so their ancestors came from the present Henan Province and Shanxi Province. The Hakka people migrated from the province and brought the language characteristics of the place where they were located at that time (thus, the language of the original location has gradually evolved into the official dialect since then). This theory believes that the original ancestors of the Hakka people were the Han people in the Central Plains.
In addition, Hakka retains many phonetic features of Middle Chinese, such as the consonants at the end of the word ([-p̚], [-t̚], [-k̚], etc.) that are also found in other southern Chinese languages (or southern dialects). , most of these features have disappeared in some northern mandarins (northern dialects). At the same time, due to the migration of Hakka ancestors to the south, the Hakka language and the language or dialect of the area where the Hakka people migrated interacted with each other. For example, Hakka, Hokkien, and Cantonese can find common vocabulary.
As for the origin of the Hakka language, according to scholar Luo Zhaojin, the Hakka language has a common origin with languages such as Yi and She dialects, but after the process of learning "Chinese written language", the characteristics of northern Chinese were introduced, and finally formed. Today's Hakka.
However, regardless of whether the origin of the Hakka language was formed by the fusion of northern Chinese brought by the Han people from the Central Plains to the south, or the southern language was formed by the Sinicization of the northern language, it is certain that the emergence and development of the Hakka language cannot be separated from the Central Plains. The Han nationality migrated to the south and interacted with the surrounding ethnic groups to produce the Hakka language. The following is a list of the five reasons for the southward migration of the Han people in the Central Plains, and the five migration maps of the Hakka people.
- The first great migration of Hakka ancestors: the "Eight Kings Rebellion" triggered in the first year of Yongkang at the end of the Western Jin Dynasty.
- The second great migration of Hakka ancestors: the "Anshi Rebellion" in the Tang Dynasty.
- The third great migration of Hakka ancestors: After the Jin soldiers captured, Song Gaozong traveled south. After the Yuan people invaded the Central Plains, they moved across the south of the Yangtze River again.
- The fourth great migration of the Hakka ancestors: There are two reasons, one is the influence of the Manchus entering the Central Plains, and the other is the expansion of the Hakka population.
- The fifth great migration of Hakka ancestors: the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement.
The five migrations of the Hakka people.
2.3 Types of Hakka (dialects, sub-dialects, accents)
There are many types of Hakka languages. The following is the Hakka dialect classification map to divide the large-scale classification and geographical location of Hakka languages, and list various Hakka languages in a table.
Classification of Hakka dialects. (Click on image to enlarge to view original size)
|Ninglong tablets||Ningdu dialect, Shicheng dialect, Ruijin dialect, Longnan dialect, Anyuan dialect, Xunwu dialect, Xingguo dialect, Dingnan dialect, Quannan dialect, Huichang dialect, Xinfeng Hakka|
|Osmanthus slices||Yudu dialect, Guidong dialect, Ganxian dialect, Nankang dialect, Shangyou dialect, Dayu dialect, Rucheng Hakka, Yanling Hakka, Suichuan Hakka|
|Brass drum piece||Tonggu Dialect (Huaiyuan Dialect), Xiushui Hakka, Liuyang Hakka|
|Cantonese and Taiwanese films||Jiaying small pieces||Meixian dialect, Jiaoling dialect, Pingyuan dialect, Sixian dialect (Taiwan)|
|Xinghua small piece||Xingning dialect, Dapu dialect (Taiwan: Dapu dialect), Fengshun dialect, Wuhua dialect (changlesheng), Zijin dialect|
|Xinhui small piece||Xinfeng dialect, Huiyang dialect, Shenzhen Hakka, Pearl River Delta Hakka, Hong Kong Hakka|
|Shaonan small piece||English-German, Qujiang dialect (including Wujiang District, etc.)|
|Cantonese films||Heyuan dialect, Longchuan dialect, Heping dialect, Lianping dialect, Boluo dialect|
|Northern Guangdong||Wengyuan dialect, Ruyuan dialect, Lechang dialect, Renhua dialect, Shixing dialect|
|Huizhou slices||Huizhou dialect (controversial)|
|Tingzhou slices||Changting dialect, Yongding dialect, Shanghang dialect, Ninghua dialect, Wuping dialect, Liancheng dialect, Zhaoan Hakka (Taiwan: Zhaoan dialect), Tingzhou dialect|
|Western Cantonese||Yanya dialect, Xinmin dialect, Moge dialect|
|Land and sea film||Hailu Hakka (represented by Luhe dialect, Taiwan: Hailu dialect)|
|not fragmented||Sichuan Hakka, Banshan Hakka (Jiexi Dialect), Shuiyuanyin (generally included in Cantonese films), Raoping Hakka (Taiwan: Raoping Dialect), Shaanxi Hakka, She Dialect (controversial), Zhejiang Hakka|
Although Taiwanese Hakka is dominated by four-county accents, the number of speakers of each accent (or sub-dialect) is not the same. It can be roughly divided into four counties, Hailu, Dapu, Raoping, Zhaoan, Yongding, and Changle. Equal tones (collectively known as "Four Seas Yongle Daping"), as for the two tones of Yongding and Changle, they have almost relegated to personal families, and the number of people using the remaining five more active tones is just in line with the order of "Four Seas Daping" (North Four counties accounted for 58.4%, Nansi counties accounted for 7.3%, Hailu accounted for 44.8%, Dapu accounted for 4.1%, Raoping accounted for 2.6%, and Zhaoan accounted for 1.7%. In addition, the same person may have more than one Hakka sub-dialect, so The statistics add up to more than 100%). In addition, there are Tingzhou tunes, Fengshun tunes, Pinghe tunes, Nanjing tunes, Jiexi tunes and other few tunes, which are rarely seen or have disappeared from Taiwan, as well as the tunes of mixed regions. (For example: Sixian dialect and Hailu dialect mixed with Sihai dialect). The distribution of the five types (accents or sub-dialects) of Taiwanese Hakka is shown in the figure below.
Types and distribution of Hakka in Taiwan. (Click on image to enlarge to view original size)
|name||region of origin||Taiwan distribution area|
|Four County accent||Meixian County in Meizhou, Guangdong and four nearby counties including Wuhua, Xingning, Zhenping County, and Pingyuan.||Zhongli City, Pingzhen City, Yangmei City, Miaoli County, South Liudui (located in Kaohsiung, Pingtung), and Guanxi Township, Hsinchu County in Taoyuan County.|
|Sea and land accent||Haifeng County and Lufeng County in Huizhou Prefecture, Guangdong Province.||Fugang, Xinwu Township, Guanyin Township and Hsinchu County in Yangmei City in Taoyuan County, and parts of Fenglin Township, Ji'an Township, Shoufeng Township, Xincheng Township, Yuli Township, and Ruisui Township in Hualien County.|
|Tai Po accent||Dapu County in Meizhou, Guangdong.||Dongshi Township, Shigang Township, and Xinshe Township in Taichung County.|
|Rao Pingqiang||Raoping, Huilai, Puning, Jieyang, Haiyang, and Chaoyang counties in Chaozhou Prefecture, Guangdong.||Zhuolan Township in Miaoli County, Yuanlin Township in Changhua County, Yongjing Township, Tianwei Township and Hsinchu County.|
|Zhao'an accent||Zhao'an County, Nanjing County, Pinghe County, and Yunxiao County in Zhangzhou Prefecture, Fujian Province.||Lunbei Township, Erlun Township, Xiluo Township in Yunlin County, parts of Xitun District and Beitun District in Taichung City, parts of Zhongliao Township in Nantou County, parts of Yilan County, Bade City and Daxi Township in Taoyuan County , Longtan Township area.|
|Tingzhou accent||Changting County, Tingzhou Prefecture, Fujian Province, followed by Liancheng, Qingliu, and Ninghua from the surrounding Changting County.||Lunbei Township and Xiluo Township in Yunlin County, Bade City and Daxi Township in Taoyuan are the main ones.|
|Yongdingqiang||Yongding County and Wuping County, Tingzhou Prefecture, Fujian Province.||Sanzhi and Shimen Townships in Taipei County.|
|Taiwanese Hakka||Dialect of four counties
|Mino sub dialect||Kaohsiung|
|land and sea dialect
|Zhudong sub dialect||Hsinchu|
|Xinya sub dialect||Taoyuan|
|Tai Po dialect||Dongshi subdialect||Taichung|
|Rao Ping dialect||Zhiliaowo dialect||Hsinchu|
|Zhuolan sub dialect||Miaoli|
|Zhaoan dialect||Lunbei sub dialect||Yunlin|
|Yongding dialect||Cukeng sub-dialect||Taoyuan|
|Changle dialect||Sub-dialect of Mulang village||Taoyuan|
|Wu Ping Dialect||Shimen dialect||Taipei|
|Fengshun dialect||Lampu subdialect||Taoyuan|
|Haisi mixed dialect||Zhongpu sub-dialect||chiayi|
|Mixed dialects of four seas and four seas||Nanzhou sub-dialect||Pingtung|
In addition, there are overseas Hakka. The Hakka people in Meixian County, Meizhou once established the Chinese country "Lanfang Republic" in Pontianak, the southwest tip of Kalimantan Island, in the 18th century. Therefore, this place that belongs to Indonesia now has a Pontianak-style Hakka (Kun-style Hakka), it is quite different from Hakka in mainland China, and it also mixes a lot of Indonesian and local dialects.
By the way, Sixian accent is subdivided into Beisixian accent and Nansixian accent. Although the two can generally communicate normally, there are slight differences in accent, intonation and some vocabulary. If readers are interested in learning about North and South What are the differences between the four counties? You can refer to〈Differences between North Four Counties and South Four Counties> In this article, there is a detailed analysis and comparison of the differences between the two.
3 Hakka Learning Methods
There are thousands of human languages in the world, and the languages have different dialects or accents. However, if the language is managed by an official organization, a "standard language" is usually set, or the dialect has a "representative tone" for non-native speakers to learn. language can be based on.
In addition, not every language has characters. Some languages do not need phonetic symbols, such as Spanish. You can see what the pronunciation is, so there will be phonetic symbols, such as English will have phonetic symbols, and Chinese will have Zhuyin or Pinyin.
Therefore, the following will introduce readers who are non-native speakers of Hakka, which type or accent of Hakka they should learn, and which phonetic symbols to use when learning Hakka to learn the pronunciation of Hakka.
3.1 Which common Hakka accent should I learn?
There are thousands of human languages in the world, and the language family is divided into multiple language families (for example: under the Sino-Tibetan language family, there are Chinese and Tibeto-Burman language families, etc.), and language families are divided into multiple languages (for example: under the Chinese family, it is divided into Mandarin, Xiang, Gan, etc.) language, Wu dialect, Min dialect, Cantonese, Hakka, etc.), and the language can be divided into several dialects (for example: under the Hakka language, there are Meixian dialect, Sixian dialect, etc.), and each dialect has different accents (For example:North four counties accent, South four counties accent), in addition, sometimes there is a more subdivided division between languages and dialects, which is to use the division method of language branch, large area, and small area (for example: under the Hakka language, there are Cantonese-Taiwan films, Yuezhong films, and Yuebei films, etc. etc. Cantonese and Taiwan films can be subdivided into Jiaying small films, Xinghua small films, Xinhui small films, Shaonan small films, etc., and the common Meixian dialect and Sixian dialect belong to Jiaying small films).
In fact, most of the human languages in the world have a variety of dialects and accents, but what we see in movies, TV programs, radio, books and other media are usually standardized standard languages. For example, Japanese is roughly divided into There are five dialects including East Japan dialect, Hachijo dialect, West Japan dialect, Kyushu dialect and Ryukyu Japanese dialect. When foreigners learn Japanese, they all learn the common language, which is the "Tokyo dialect" under the Kanto dialect of the East Japan dialect. Except Japanese , and other languages in the world have similar situations. Therefore, in the above chapters, it was expounded that Hakka has many different subdialects or accents, but for learners of Hakka, it is impossible to learn multiple Hakka at once, but only need to choose the most common and used Hakka One of the most widely used Hakka languages is enough to learn.
In mainland China, it has always been recognized as the representative of the Hakka language is a Chinese Hakka dialect spoken in Meizhou, Guangdong Province——"Meixian Dialect" (or "Meizhou Hakka"), which is called "Meizhou Hakka" in linguistics. It is the "representative language" or "language representative" of Hakka. The Hakka broadcast in mainland China is also mainly based on Meixian dialect, but the strong dialect is actually Huiyang dialect, which means that Huiyang dialect is spoken by more people than Meixian dialect, but traditional In the above, Meixian dialect is used as the representative pronunciation of the Hakka language (not the standard pronunciation). Both are Cantonese and Taiwanese films. In Taiwan, the most common and frequently used Hakka language is typically represented by the "Four County Dialect", and the Hakka broadcasts of public transportation mostly follow it, and because of the mass media (including Hakyu TV, transportation systems, Hakka Books, language certification, etc.) are more popular than Meixian dialect, and even non-native Hakka speakers have more opportunities to come into contact with and learn Sixian dialect. Furthermore, although Sixian dialect is slightly different from Meixian dialect, they have a high degree of similarity and commonality, and can communicate with mainstream Hakka.
To sum up, the most common Hakka accents in Taiwan are Sixian and Hailu, and more than half of them are in the four counties. Most of the Hakka teaching materials, Internet information, etc. In addition, the Sixian accent is simpler than other accents (for example, the pronunciation is simpler, and the pitch and modulation are relatively less), soFor beginners who want to learn Hakka, it is recommended to choose to learn Sixian accent. However, if the mother tongue of the ancestors is another Hakka accent, you can choose to learn the same accent as the ancestors first, or learn Sixian dialect in addition to preserve different languages and differences.
3.2 Which Hakka phonetic symbols (phonetic symbols) should be used?
When learning a language for the first time, one must first understand "listening and speaking" before learning "reading and writing". To understand pronunciation, one needs to learn phonetic symbols, and currently there is a set of phonetic symbols in the world that can record the pronunciation of all human languages called "International Phonetic Alphabet". A language is likely to develop different phonetic symbols due to various factors or historical relationships to meet the usage conditions of different learners in different times. ", the "Hakka Pinyin scheme" in mainland China, the "Hakka Pinyin" in Hong Kong), different time and space backgrounds (the vernacular characters of the early church, the general Hakka pinyin in 1998, and the Taiwanese Hakka pinyin scheme revised in 2009) Different phonetic symbols have been created due to factors such as Hakka Pinyin and phonetic symbols of Zhuyin.
Taking Hakka and Taiwan as an example, the Hakka writing system in Taiwan is not only based on Chinese characters, but also has many kinds of phonetic symbols (phonetic symbols), such as phonetic symbols based on the Latin alphabet, such as: " Hakka Vernacular Characters" (also known as "Taiwanese Hakka Roman Pinyin", which is different from the vernacular characters published in Shantou), "Hakkyu Tongyu Pinyin" (full name is Taiwan Hakka Tongyu Pinyin Scheme), "Taiwan Hakka Pinyin Scheme ", or use symbols created according to the characteristics of the original language, such as: "Zhuyin symbols" and "Zhuyin symbols expansion" (including Taiwanese dialect symbols) of Chinese characters.
The usage status of various phonetic symbols in Hakka in Taiwan: (1) "Hakka vernacular characters" are usually only popular among Hakka Christians in Taiwan; In 2009, the government set Chinese Pinyin as a standard and revised it to "Taiwan Hakka Pinyin Scheme"; (3) "Taiwan Hakka Pinyin Scheme" has been the pinyin scheme promoted by the government since 2009, including the government's online Hakka word dictionary , Hakka Proficiency Certification, Hakka Learning Network, etc., all use this pinyin scheme; (4) "Zhuyin symbols" are the pinyin methods that every educated person will learn when learning Mandarin, but in fact, Zhuyin is OK It is used to mark other languages (or dialects) of the Chinese family, including Taiwanese Hokkien, Hakka, etc., but it may be necessary to use "Zhuyin symbols expansion" or "Dialectal symbols".
So what kind of guest phonetic symbols should I use? To sum up, although there are many ways to transcribe Hakka phonetics, the most common, most commonly used and certified method in Taiwan is the "Taiwan Hakka Phonetic Alphabet Scheme", and some Hakka promoters call for Use "Zhuyin symbols" because they believe that the letters "p, t, k, g, d, g" have different pronunciations in different languages' pinyin schemes, for example: "p, t, k" in Hakka pinyin (equivalent to "ph, th, kh" in Hokkien pinyin) and "p, t, k" in Hokkien pinyin (equivalent to "b, d, g" in Hakka pinyin) are pronounced differently. If you use Zhuyin, there will be no Problems with different pronunciations of the same symbol. Therefore, the author thinks that ifPeople who want to take the Taiwan Hakka certification or who want to understand the most Hakka information can learn "Taiwan Hakka Pinyin Scheme", but if you don’t want to learn Hakka pinyin, you can use Zhuyin to read Hakka pronunciation directly (because most educated Taiwanese can use Zhuyin, and are less affected by different pronunciations of phonetic symbols in different languages), so the following chapters of this article The Hakka language teaching will be paralleled with the "Taiwan Hakka Pinyin Scheme" and the "Taiwan dialect symbols" of the phonetic symbols for readers to choose by themselves (Taiwanese readers who have not learned the Hakka pinyin can also learn the Hakka pronunciation with the familiar phonetic symbols).
3.3 Hakka writing system and phonetic notation in this paper
The Hakka language used to be written in Chinese characters until the middle of the 19th century. In order to facilitate missionary work, Christian priests created a variety of Hakka Latin alphabets and vernacular characters for illiterate civilians. Most of these alphabets It is designed according to the local dialects of each place. Therefore, Hakka is written in different ways in different places. After Taiwan revised the Taiwan Hakka pinyin scheme in 2009, Hakka certification, Hakka teaching materials, Internet information, etc. Most of them use this method. The following explains the Hakka writing method and phonetic notation used in this article.
3.3.1 Hakka Chinese characters
Although Hakka has been written in Chinese characters in the past, the choice of words varies in different places, environments, and carriers. For example, the term "village" is listed in the Ministry of EducationA Dictionary of Frequently Used Taiwanese Hakka WordsThe website of the Ministry of Education uses the word "Zhuangtou", but it is written as "Zhuangtou" in some other folk Hakka books or information; or the word "daughter-in-law" is used in the website of the Ministry of Education. The term "Uncle Xin" is often used in the market. As a result, the same word can be written in many ways, so this article will use the wording method of the Ministry of Education, and it can also be in line with Hakka certification.
3.3.2 Hakka Pinyin
In the above chapters, several methods of Hakka pinyin are mentioned, including Hakka vernacular characters, Hakka universal pinyin, Taiwan Hakka pinyin scheme, etc. However, the current information from the Ministry of Education, Hakka information on various websites, and Hakka certification, etc., the Hakka pinyin method used is the "Taiwan Hakka Pinyin Scheme" as the mainstream, so this article will also use this Hakka pinyin method.
3.3.3 Phonetic symbols
Although the phonetic symbols used in the Hakka language are usually based on pinyin, the pronunciation needs to be learned separately, because the pronunciation of letters in different languages is different. Some educated Taiwanese have learned phonetic symbols. Not only are phonetic symbols used in Chinese, they can also be used in other languages, such as Cantonese, Hokkien, Hakka and other languages. Therefore, in this article, in addition to marking Hakka on top of Chinese characters In addition to pinyin, Zhuyin is added for readers to choose habitual and convenient phonetic symbols to learn Hakka.
However, the traditional thirty-seven phonetic symbols are fully applicable to the Chinese language, and Taiwanese Hokkien is also fully applicable to the dialect symbols (extended from the phonetic symbols). Although the Hakka language can also use the phonetic symbols to mark the phonetic symbols, it is not perfect The place. For example: Zhuyin and Fangyin have a characteristic that plural vowels are marked as a symbol, for example, "ㄚㄧ" is changed to "ㄞ" in Zhuyin, and "ㄚㄇ" in Hokkien is marked as "ㆰ" in Fangyin, but Hakka-specific "ㄛㄧ" and "ㄛㄋ" do not have a dedicated symbol, resulting in the situation that some compound finals have separate symbols and others do not.
There are also similar consonants, but different phonetic consonants are used in the initial consonant and final. For example, the consonant "ng" in Hokkien and Hakka pinyin is written as "ㄫ" if it appears in the initial consonant phonetic, and "ㆭ" if it is a final consonant (regardless is a single final or a compound final), similarly, the consonant pinyin "n" in Chinese, Hokkien, and Hakka language has an initial consonant phonetic "ㄋ", but only the single final "n" unique to Hakka (for example: "You" in Hakka ” characters), the phonetic notation often shows missing characters, and it is necessary to use an image file to display 「」。
Therefore, the phonetic notation used in this article all uses the phonetic notation of basic consonants and vowels, that is, only single finals are used, and complex finals (for example: ㄞ, ㄟ, ㄠ, ㄡ) are not used, so that some complex finals have separate symbols Some do not, the rules cannot be unified, and the consonant structure and matching pinyin can be seen more intuitively; and the consonants use the same phonetic symbols in both the initial consonant and the final consonant (for example: pinyin "m", "n", "ng" Use "ㄇ", "ㄋ" and "ㄫ" for the phonetic notation of the final vowel "ㆬ", "", "ㆭ"), and can also save readers from having to learn too many symbols other than traditional phonetic symbols (but still need to know the two phonetic symbols "ㄫ" and "ㄪ", because they are consonants that Chinese does not have but Hakka has). Therefore, all the detailed usage of Zhuyin in this article, as well as possible problems, are listed below in as much detail as possible, so that readers can understand the Hakka phonetic notation method used in this article.
- When "ㄗ", "ㄘ" and "ㄙ" appear alone, the final vowel "ㆨ" behind is omitted, which is the same as in Chinese.
- monophonic final
- "ㄇ": "ㄇ" is used for phonetic notation of initials and finals, and the final "ㆬ" is not used.
- "ㄋ": "ㄋ" is used for both initials and finals, and "ㄋ" is not used for finals.」。
- "ㄫ": "ㄇ" is used for the phonetic notation of both the initial consonant and the final, and the final "ㆭ" is not used.
- 「ㄩ」: There is no such sound in Hakka language, so it is not used.
- polyphonic final
- 「ㄞ」: It is equal to 「ㄚㄧ」, so instead of 「ㄞ」, use 「ㄚㄧ」.
- "ㄟ": equal to "ㄝㄧ", but Hakka does not have this syllable, so it is not used.
- 「ㄠ」: It is equal to 「ㄚㄨ」, so instead of 「ㄠ」, use 「ㄚㄨ」.
- "ㄡ": equal to "ㄛㄨ", but Hakka does not have this syllable, so it is not used.
- nasal rhyme
- 「ㄢ」: It is equal to 「ㄚㄋ」, so instead of 「ㄢ」, use 「ㄚㄋ」.
- In Chinese, "ㄢ" should be pronounced as "ㄚㄋ", but "一ㄢ" should be pronounced as "一ㄝㄋ" instead of "ㄧㄚㄋ", which is easy to cause confusion.
- "ㄣ": equal to "ㄜㄋ", but the Hakka language does not have this syllable, so it is not used, only "ㄋ".
- "ㄣ" in Chinese should be pronounced as "ㄜㄋ" (example: en), but "you" in Hakka has only one consonant "ㄋ" instead of "ㄜ". If the phonetic notation is "ㄣ", it may be pronounced as "ㄜ ㄋ" will cause confusion.
- In Chinese, "ㄏㄣ" is pronounced as "ㄏㄜㄋ" (eg: very, hate), but when pronounced "ㄧㄣ" in Chinese (eg: Yin, Yin, Yin, Yin), "ㄧ" and "ㄣ" are separated. Without 「ㄜ」 (not pronounced as 「ㄧㄜㄋ」), it will cause confusion.
- "ㄤ": It is equal to "ㄚㄫ", so "ㄚㄫ" is used instead of "ㄤ".
- "ㄥ": equal to "ㄜㄫ", but the Hakka language does not have this syllable, so it is not used, only "ㄫ".
- In Chinese, "ㄨㄥ" is pronounced as "ㄨㄛㄥ", but Hakka cannot, because Hakka has the pronunciation of "ㄨㄥ" (example: wind) and "ㄨㄛㄥ" (example: square) at the same time, which is easy to cause confusion , so this article uses "ㄨㄫ" and "ㄨㄛㄫ".
- 「ㄢ」: It is equal to 「ㄚㄋ」, so instead of 「ㄢ」, use 「ㄚㄋ」.
- Other phonetic symbols
- "ㄓ", "ㄔ", "ㄕ", "ㄖ": the four-county accents are not used, but only used in the four accents of Dapu, Hailu, Raoping, and Zhao'an. The tongue is flat when pronounced, which is similar to the warped tongue. No, that is, it is different from the retroflex sound of Chinese, but the following chapters all use Sixian accent as an example, so this article does not use it.
- 「ㄦ」has no such sound in Hakka language, so it is not used.
- Notes on other syllables
- "ㄅㄛ": It is pronounced as "ㄅㄨㄛ" in Chinese, but not in Hakka.
- "ㄆㄛ": It is pronounced as "ㄆㄨㄛ" in Chinese (example: Po, Bo), but not in Hakka (for example: the Hakka "Grandma" of "Grandma" should be pronounced as "ㄚˊ ㄆㄛˇ", do not into "ㄚˊ ㄆㄨㄛˇ").
- 「ㄇㄛ」: Chinese pronounces it as “ㄇㄨㄛ” (e.g. Mo, Mo), but Hakka cannot (e.g. Hakka “no problem” should be pronounced as “ㄇㄛˇ ㄇㄨㄋㄊ ㄧˇ", do not pronounce it as "ㄇㄨㄛˇ ㄇㄨㄋㄊㄧ").
4 ★ Hakka Learning Emphasis and Highlights (Four Counties)
The above chapters introduce the background knowledge related to Hakka language. This chapter will enter the learning of Hakka language. However, since learning a language cannot be completed by teaching a few words, this article will only sort out and list the most important parts. It is hoped that readers can reach the level of learning elementary Hakka, rather than aiming at intermediate and advanced levels.
In addition, this teaching mainly focuses on the four-county accent of Taiwanese Hakka, while other types of accents or sub-dialects are not included in the teaching scope of this article. The phonetic symbols will use both the Taiwanese Hakka pinyin scheme and phonetic symbols. Readers only need to choose one of them It is enough to learn the more accustomed phonetic marks. Finally, if you want to speak Hakka more quickly, or want to use frequently used Hakka in an emergency, you can go directly to the last part of this chapter, "Conversational Phrases", where there will be the most commonly used Hakka-related phrases and sentences.
To learn a language, you must first learn how to pronounce it. This chapter will give a complete introduction to the pronunciation of the Hakka language. First, some things learned in this article will be explained.
- Some readers of "consonants" and "vowels" must learn and memorize them.(need to memorize)
- "Initials" and "Finals" list the combinations of consonants and vowels for readers to understand, and there is no need to memorize them.(just understand)
- "Syllable structure" is only for readers to understand the composition of grams and syllables, no special memory is required.(just understand)
- "Tone" is a language feature that all Chinese people have. It is necessary to know how tones are produced.(need to memorize)
- "Tone change" should be memorized as much as possible, so that you can pronounce it correctly when reciting Hakka, otherwise it will sound weird.(need to memorize)
There are twenty-six consonants in the four-county dialect of Hakka in Taiwan, of which there are three entering-tone endings. The following table lists the twenty-six consonants, and compares them with Hakka Pinyin (based on the Taiwanese Hakka Pinyin scheme), Zhuyin symbols (including dialect symbols), vernacular characters, and the International Phonetic Alphabet.
|Hakka Pinyin||phonetic notation||Vernacular characters||International Phonetic Alphabet||Remark|
|the s||ㄙ||the s||the s|
There are seven vowels in the four-county dialect of Hakka in Taiwan. The following table lists the seven vowels, and compares them with Hakka Pinyin (mainly the Taiwanese Hakka Pinyin scheme), Zhuyin symbols (including dialect symbols), vernacular characters, and the International Phonetic Alphabet.
|Hakka Pinyin||phonetic notation||Vernacular characters||International Phonetic Alphabet|
- "ㆨ" is only used for explanation in this article, and "ㆨ" after "ㄗ", "ㄘ" and "ㄙ" is omitted, which is the same as in Chinese.
- "er／ㄜ" only appears in Nansi County dialect.
- "ㄭ" has two pronunciations that are confusing, so "ㆨ" is used in this article.
|initials||bilabial||labiodental||Apex alto||front of tongue||apical front sound||root sound||guttural|
|lock tone||Voiceless||Not aspirated||b||d||g|
|side tone||voiced sound||l|
|single vowel||compound vowels|
|double vowel||triple vowel||nasal ending||consonant ending|
|labial nasal||Apical nasal sound||Nasal||labial consonants||apical consonants||root consonants|
4.1.5 Syllable structure
| Initial C
|Rhyme M||rhyme belly V||Rhyme E|
|b, p, m, f, v,
d, t, no, l,
j, q, x, ngi,
z, c, the s,
g, k, ng, h
|i, u||i, e, a, o, u||Vowel ending E1:i, u
Consonant ending E2:m, no, ng, b, d, g
Tone (English: Tone) is a high and low circumflex attached to a syllable. Most Chinese languages have tones, and Hakka also has tones. There are six tones in the four-county accent of Hakka in Taiwan (the number of tones in different Hakka languages is different, for example, there are seven tones in Hailu accent), which are different from the four tones in Chinese (the number of tones in different Chinese languages The order of the tones is different), and the six tones of Hakka are listed below.
|tone||four tones||pronunciation essentials||pitch value||tone marks||phonetic notation||example word|
|1st sound||Yinping||short rise||fa24||fa'||ㄈㄚ"||flower|
|2nd sound||Overcast||rapid descent||su31||su||ㄙㄨˋ||hand|
|3rd sound||go overcast||Gaoping||xien55||xien||ㄒㄧㄝㄋ||Wire|
|4th sound||Infiltrate||low and short||gud2||gud||ㄍㄨㄉˋ||bone|
|5th sound||Hinata||low level||teu11||teu||ㄊㄝㄨˇ||head|
|6th sound||Yang enter||high and short||sag5||sag||ㄙ ㄚ ㄍ||stone|
Tone sandhi (English: tone sandhi) is also known as continuous tone sandhi and continuous tone sandhi, which is the processing of applying the method of tone change to the syllables of words and closing them. Tone sandhi exists in many languages of the Chinese family, and Hakka also has the characteristic of tone sandhi.
In Chinese, there are few tone-modifying rules, which are "three-tone transposition", that is, when two three-tones are connected, the previous three-tones will become two-tones, for example: "yougood"Change"yougood","oldTiger"Change"oldTiger","beatsweep"Change"beatsweep" and other words, as well as a small number of word inflection, such as: "one" and "no".
Although Chinese has the fewest tone sandhi rules compared to other Chinese families, other Chinese language families have significantly more tone sandhi rules. For example, Taiwanese Hokkien has ten tone sandhi rules. As for Hakka, the number of tone sandhi rules is between In the middle, the Taiwanese Hakka Sixian dialect has three rules for one kind of tone sandhi (different Hakka languages have different numbers of tone sandhi rules, for example, there are two kinds of tone sandhi rules for Hailu dialect).
18.104.22.168 Yinping tone transposition
The tone sandhi of the Hakka Sixian dialect is "Yinping tone sandhi". Yinping is the tone with the sound value "24" (the tone pattern is "ˊ").As long as the word Yinping is followed by Yinping (tone value "24", tone pattern "ˊ"), Qusheng (tone value "55", tone pattern ""), Yangru (tone value "5", tone pattern "bˋ , dˋ, gˋ") these three tone characters, the tone of the preceding Yinping character will be changed into Yangping tone (tone value "11", tone pattern "ˇ"), the rules and methods of tone transposition are described in detail below. Note: Unless otherwise specified, the tones of the phonetic symbols marked in this article are all original tones, and readers need to change their tones when encountering the following rules when speaking Hakka.
22.214.171.124.1 Yinping plus Yinping
- Rules: When adding Yinping characters to Yinping characters, the tone of the preceding Yinping characters must be changed into Yangping tones.
- formula:1st sound + 1st sound → 5th sound + 1st sound.
- example:EastWest → EastWest.
126.96.36.199.2 Yinping plus Qusheng
- Rules: Add the tone of the Yinping character, and the tone of the preceding Yinping character must be changed into a Yangping tone.
- formula:1st sound + 3rd sound → 5th sound + 3rd sound.
- example:PassPass → PassPass.
188.8.131.52.3 Yin Ping plus Yang In
- Rules: When Yinping characters are added to Yangru characters, the tone of the preceding Yinping characters must be changed into Yangping tones.
- formula:1st sound + 6th sound → 5th sound + 6th sound.
- example:beehoney → beehoney.
184.108.40.206 The tone sandhi of the suffix "Zai"
The second tone sandhi of the Taiwanese Hakka dialect in the northern four counties (there are none in the southern four counties), is the tone sandhi of the word ending "Zai".When the tone of the previous character is Shangsheng (tone value 31) or Yinjin (tone value 2), "喀" should be pronounced as "eˇ, but if the previous word is unchanged when other tones.
220.127.116.11.1 Add the character "Zai" in the upper voice
- Rules: Add the word "Zai" to the upper tone character, and the tone of "Zai" must be changed from upper tone (tone value 31) to Yangping tone (tone value 11).
- formula:Shangshengzi + "young" → Shangshengzi + "young".
18.104.22.168.2 Add the word "Aberdeen" in the overcast
- Rules: Add the word "Zai" to the yin character, and the tone of "Zai" must be changed from an upper tone (tone value 31) to a Yangping tone (tone value 11).
- formula:Yin type + "young" → Yin type + "young".
The smallest unit of language that can express meaning is a "word", so after understanding how Hakka is pronounced, the next step is to learn some basic Hakka vocabulary. Before this article, I sorted out the most common vocabulary, but later, considering that each person may have different vocabulary needs to express, I directly used the Google Docs spreadsheet to import the Hakka Proficiency Certification vocabulary organized by the Hakka Committee. Readers can choose according to their needs. Beginner, intermediate, or advanced Hakka vocabulary can also be searched according to different accents of Sixian, Hailu, Dapu, Raoping, Zhaoan, etc., and can be browsed or searched directly on the webpage (press the "Ctrl" key for the computer version) + "F" key to search, the mobile phone board has the "Search in Webpage" function in the function bar at the top right of the webpage), which is faster than entering keywords in an online dictionary (dictionary) and waiting for the webpage to load slowly on many.
4.3.1 Variations of word forms
This chapter is limited to the change and use of general word forms, and does not involve the structure of sentences, so that beginners can first understand the basic word change grammar of Hakka. In the next chapter, readers will start to understand sentences structure and usage.
22.214.171.124 Personal pronouns
personal pronounAlso known astitle pronoun, is used to replace the name of a person or thing, such as "you", "I", "he" and other words in Chinese.
|Odd number||plural||Odd number||plural|
|Chinese||everyone, everyone, everyone, everyone||everyone's, everyone's, everyone's, everyone's|
- The word "you" in Hakka can be pronounced as "nˇ" in addition to "nˇ".ni","ngˇ"or"ngiˇ"It's all right.
126.96.36.199 Reflexive pronouns
A reflexive pronoun is a pronoun used to replace oneself, indicating that the subject of the sentence also accepts the action of the verb, that is, "...myself", such as "Yanyazijia" in Hakka and "I myself" in Chinese. Among them, "Zijia" in the Hakka language is equivalent to the meaning of "self" in Chinese, which is used to indicate that the action is performed on the actor himself, and it is a purely reflexive pronoun.
|Classification||claim to||symmetry||he called|
|Chinese||ourselves||your selves||they themselves|
188.8.131.52 Demonstrative pronouns
A demonstrative pronoun is a word that is used in place of the thing the speaker is referring to, etc.
|demonstrative pronoun||close name||Far name||Indefinite|
|Odd number||plural||Odd number||plural||Odd number||plural|
|pointing at people||Hakka||thisindivualpeople
there is a person
|refers to things||Hakka||thisindivual
a certain one
is having a
there is one
There are some
|refers to the premises||Hakka||this(bit,takeyoung,piece...)||thispocket(Placeexist...)||Should(bit,takeyoung,piece...)||Shouldpocket(Placeexist...)||certainoneindivualPlaceexist
|Chinese||This (in, around, side...)||These (places...)||That (in, around, side...)||those (places...)||somewhere
a certain place
|refers to time||Hakka||this(Down,put,Full,onebargeyoung,onestandyoung,Centralhour...)||thisSeveral(put,day,moon,Year...)||Should(Down,put,Full,onebargeyoung,onestandyoung,Centralhour...)||ShouldSeveral(put,day,moon,Year...)||haveone(day,put,Down,bargeyoung,standyoung...)||haveSeveral(day,put,Down...)|
|Chinese||This (all of a sudden, once, once, for a while, when...)||How many times (times, days, months, years...)||Then (time, time, once, for a while...)||How many times (times, days, months, years...)||Some/one (day, time, all of a sudden, for a while, when...)||Some/how many (day, time, all of a sudden...)|
|Refers to traits||Hakka||yeSample
184.108.40.206 Interrogative pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are words used to replace unknown people, places, things, etc.
|interrogative pronoun||Odd number||plural|
|Chinese||who, who, who||who, who|
|Chinese||Where, where (in, around, side...)||which places……)|
|Chinese||How long, when, when (when...), when|
|Generation traits||Hakka||Sample/look up(young,meeting,have,so-so,shape...),Several(big,good...)|
|Chinese||What (like, shape...), how, how, how much (big, good...)...|
Hakka numbers and Chinese numbers are used in the same way except for the pronunciation. Therefore, when learning Hakka, you only need to change the Chinese pronunciation to Hakka pronunciation. There is no need to memorize different number rules or use word.
In addition, the rules for the number "2" in Hakka language are the same, "2" and "20" are "two" and "twenty" respectively, "200", "2000", "20000", "200000000" and so on are respectively "Two hundred", "two thousand", "twenty thousand", "two hundred million" and so on, also use "two" before quantifiers, for example: "two", which have the same rules as Chinese and Hokkien . There is also the pronunciation of "0" when it appears alone as "zero", between several numbers, read "zero",For example:"twoHundredzerotwo", which has the same rules as Hokkien.
|10000||oneTen thousand||10000000||onethousandTen thousand|
|100000||tenTen thousand||100000000||one100 million|
|time usage||Hakka example|
|point||point / hour||onepoint|
|date usage||Hakka example||Question words|
How many months?
|What's the number?
How many days?
|presentbye||week / week||presentbyeday||presentbyeSeveral?||Day of the week?
What day of the week?
220.127.116.11 Comparative usage of adjectives
|Adjective Comparative Usage||adjective usage||Hakka example|
|Chinese||compare~, compare~, compare||colder|
|superlative||Hakka||as much as possible~||as much as possiblecold|
4.3.2 Sentence structure
In the last chapter, the reader learned about the most common word changes, and the next step is to carry out the content of the giant structure, so that the reader can create the most common basic sentences in the Hakka language, and be able to use the Hakka language to complete Say a word.
18.104.22.168 Noun Predicate Sentences Using "(无)组"
The predicates acted by nouns or nominal phrases, and sentences with such predicates are called noun predicate sentences. Hakka"系" is equal to "Yes" in Chinese,negative"Wu" is equivalent to "No" in Chinese.
|Instructions for use||"Noun + family + noun." means an affirmative predicate sentence.||"Noun + Wuxi + noun." means a negative predicate sentence.|
|Chinese meaning||He is a high school student.||He is not a high school student.|
22.214.171.124 Interrogative sentences using "none"
In Hakka language, as long as "无" is added at the end of a declarative sentence, an interrogative sentence can be formed."无" is equivalent to "呀" in Chinese.
|Instructions for use||"Declarative sentence + nothing" means interrogative sentence.|
|Chinese meaning||Are you a Hakka?|
126.96.36.199 Interrogative sentences using interrogative words
When using interrogative words in Hakka sentences,No need to add "none" at the end of the sentence. Hakka question words"What" is equivalent to "what" in Chinese, a Hakka question word"What person" is equivalent to "what person" in Chinese, "who", a Hakka question word"Which" is equivalent to "where" in Chinese.
In addition, "Which person" in the Hakka language refers to "where", literally "which location", not "Which person" in Chinese.
|Question words||Hakka example||Chinese meaning|
|which one||What||thisTieWhat?indivual?||What's this?|
|who||who/what||canalTieWhat?people?||who is he? / Who is he?|
|who||where||youlikegowherebit?||where are you going?|
188.8.131.52 Adjective predicate clauses
Hakka adjectives and predicates usually add the adverb "Dang". Although Hakka "Dang" literally means "very" in Chinese, in fact "Dang" in affirmative sentences has almost no meaning of "very". It is just a grammatical It's just what's needed. If the adjective predicate sentence does not use the adverb "when", it usually means to have a comparison between the two. When negating, you only need to add the auxiliary verb "wu (会)" in front of the adjective. In addition, if it expresses possibility, just add the auxiliary verb "(wu)hui" in front of the adjective.
|adjective predicate||Hakka example||Chinese meaning|
|with the adverb "when"||thisyeLongskygaswhengood.||The weather has been nice lately.|
|no adverb "when"||newbamboowindbig,shouldorchidrainmany.||Bamboo wind orchid rain.|
|Negative plus "wu (will)"||thisbittermelonnotmeetingbitter.||This bitter gourd is not bitter.|
|Indicates possibility with the auxiliary verb "(无)会"||thisbittermelonmeetingbitternone?||Will this bitter gourd be bitter?|
|skyLightdaynotmeetinggoodsky.||The weather will be bad tomorrow.|
184.108.40.206 Verb-predicate clauses
A verb-predicate sentence is a sentence in which a verb or a verbal phrase acts as a predicate, and the basic sentence pattern is "subject + verb + object".
|Chinese meaning||He goes to Japan.||My sister doesn't read.|
220.127.116.11 Linked sentences
Linked sentences are sentences in which one subject uses more than two verbs.
|Chinese meaning||He goes to a restaurant to eat.|
18.104.22.168 Dual target language
Double target language means that the verb has two target languages. The basic sentence pattern and word order are: subject + verb + "to whom" + "thing".
|dual purpose language||verb + "to whom" + "something"|
|Chinese meaning||I teach you Hakka.||I will give you a Hakka book.|
4.3.3 Use of syntax
What this chapter is going to explain is how to use a certain word, part of speech, etc. to make a sentence, so it is recommended that you can understand the sentence structure of the previous chapter before you can understand how to use more detailed methods, words, word patterns, etc. to make sentences. Produce more precise sentences.
22.214.171.124 The use of the construction particle "ge"
Hakka's constructive particle (structural particle) "ge" means the same as "de" in Chinese, and its usage is the same as in Chinese. There are roughly two usages: (1) "~ge + noun" is used to modify nouns, expressing each other (2) The noun part of "~ a + noun" is omitted, and it can still have the function of a noun sentence.
|usage of "one"||"~个+noun" is used to modify nouns.||The noun part of "~个+noun" is omitted.|
|Hakka example||YanyaTie○ ○bigstudyindivualstudyborn.||thisnoneTiecanalindivual.|
|Chinese meaning||I am a student of ○○ University.||It's not his.|
126.96.36.199 The presence or absence of noun modifiers and "a"
In Hakka, when a personal pronoun is used as a noun modifier, it can be directly linked to the name of a relative or the unit to which it belongs, without adding "个".
|The presence or absence of "one"||usage example|
|Hakka usage||Chinese meaning||Hakka example||Chinese meaning|
188.8.131.52 The usage of the scope adverbs "also" and "du" (table summary)
The adverb of Hakka expresses the range of"also" and "both"The words are the same as the Chinese "total", "total", "all", "a total", "all", "all", "probably" and "all" in Chinese.Can be used to emphasize the meaning of "same" and "all".
|table inclusive range adverb||also||All|
|Chinese meaning||Grandparents are also very happy.||They are all Taiwanese.|
184.108.40.206 Usage of the scope adverbs "Ye" and "Nie" (indicates the same or parallel)
Habitat means the same, parallel scope adverbs have"Ye", "Nai"etc., which has the same meaning as the Chinese "also", "du", "jun", "jie" and so on.
|table parallel scope adverb||also||what|
|Chinese meaning||Your father is a teacher, and his mother is also a teacher.||You are a boy, and he is also a boy.|
220.127.116.11 Usage of the conjunctions "同" and "摎"
Hakka connectives"Same" or "摎"Can be used to express the relationship of companions,Equivalent to "和" or "和" in ChineseWaiting means.
|Chinese meaning||I marry him/her.||I'll come and drink with you.|
18.104.22.168 Usage of the prepositions "in" and "pair"
Hakka prepositions "in" and "pair" plus nouns ("preposition + noun") are placed in front of verbs or adjectives in most cases as adverbials, but "zai" and "pair" Both work differently.
"exist"(pronounced as "cai","coi'","di","du","dui"or"do” and other reading methods) are used to expressthe place where an action or behavior takes place;"right"(pronounced as "di","dui"or"du” and so on) are used to expressthe beginning of a time or place.
||Hakka example||Chinese meaning|
|exist||exist||canalexistbigstudyteachBook.||He teaches at a university.|
|right||from||heatFakerightsevenmoonopenbeginning.||Summer vacation starts in July.|
|rightdayBooksitflyOKmachineCome.||Fly from Japan.|
22.214.171.124 Usage of the auxiliary verb "(wu) love"
Hakka Auxiliary Verbs"Love" is equivalent to "want" in Chinesethe meaning of. It can be used alone as a predicate to express what the subject wants; it can also be used as an adverbial, which is an additional component before a verb or an adjective, and is used to indicate the state, situation or way of action change, etc. It means "to think" , "willing", "like", "hope", "should" and so on. Negative sentences only need to add "wu" in front of "love". "wu" in Hakka is equivalent to "no" in Chinese.
|How to use "love"
||Hakka example||Chinese meaning|
||thisEastWestcanallikenone?||Does he want this thing?|
||want to||skyLightdaylikeComenone?||Are you coming tomorrow?|
|willing||youlike跈canalgonone?||Are you going with him?|
|like||canalnotlikebeatplay up.||He doesn't like to dress up.|
|hope||Downputlikewin.||To win next time.|
|should||meallikerememberhave toFood.||Remember to eat rice.|
4.4 Conversational Phrases
In addition to the complete and detailed explanation and teaching of Hakka learning in the above chapters, the following is to sort out and organize some conversational phrases and short sentences that are common, commonly spoken, and frequently used in Hakka, so that readers can quickly query Hakka use.
4.4.1 Commonly used
- Yes. →Tie.
- no. →notTie.
- please. →please.
- Thanks. →yeyoungthin.
- You're welcome; You're welcome; You're welcome. →notmakethinrighteous;notmakeguestgas.
- sorry. →losepresent.
- Excuse me; sorry. →defeatPotential.
- It doesn't matter. →notmakeshock.
- I don't know→YanyanotKnow.
- do you understand? →youupuntieHuh? ("You" can be pronounced as: nˇ/ngˇ/niˇ/ngiˇ ㄋˇ/ㄫˇ/ㄋㄧˇ/ㄫㄧˇ )
- I see. →YanyaupuntieMile.
- I do not understand. →Yanyanotupuntie.
- Can you say that again? →Dohave toAgainPassspeakoneputnone?
- please wait for a moment. →pleasewaitoneDown.
- no problem. →noneaskquestion.
4.4.2 Say hello/greeting
For a more detailed and complete teaching of Hakka greetings and greetings, please refer to <How do you say "Hello" in Taiwanese Hakka? Hakka greetings, greetings, greetings explanations> an article.
- Hello. →yougood.
- Are you full? →FoodfullHuh? (Occasion is equivalent to "hello".)
- I am full. →FoodfullMile. (Used in response to "Have you eaten enough?".)
- Hello everyone. →bigHomegood.
- Hi! haven't seen you for a long time. →Ai!yeLongnonelookwrite.
- How is it going? →yeLonggoodnone?
- very good. →yegood.
- Not bad; not bad. →returnDohave to.
- how are you? →youlook upso-so?
- Are you busy lately? →youthisyeLongmeetingwhennoneidlenone?
- very busy. →whennoneidle.
- It won't be very busy. →notmeetingwhennoneidle.
- goodbye. →justComeLaos. (Literally means "play again".)
- Good morning. →yemorning;yemeetingmorning.
- good afternoon. →nooninstall;Foodfulldayupnone?
- Good night. →darkinstall;Foodfullnightupnone?
- What? →What?indivual?
- What's this? →thisTieWhat?indivual?
- what is that? →ThatTieWhat?indivual?
- whats the matter? →What?indivualthingAffection?
- when? →What?indivualhourFestival?
- what time is it? →SeveralmanypointMile?
- Where? →existwherebit?
- Why? →DoWhat?indivual?
- how many? →
- How much? →Severalmanymoney? ;What?indivualpricenumber?
- Who are you? ;who are you? →youTieWhat?people?
- I am ○○○. →YanyaTie ○○○.
- What's your last name? →What's your last name?
- My last name is ○→Yanyasurname ○.
- What's your name? →youinstallarriveWhat?indivualname?
- My name is ○○○→Yanyainstallarrive ○○○.
- Please advise. →pleasemanyrefer toteach.
- How old are you? →younowYearSeveralmanyage? (General usage.)
- How old is the teacher? →FirstbornYeardisciplinehaveSeveralmanyMile? (Use "how old/old" when asking an older person's age.)
- how old is your son →like倈youngSeveralbigMile? (Use "how old" when asking about the age of a younger or child.)
- I wish you ○○○○. →wishyou ○○○○.
- Happy birthday. →borndayquickhappy.
- Happy New Year. →newYearquickhappy.
- May you be happy and prosperous. →Christinehappinesshairfiscal.
- In good health. →bodybodyKanghealthy.
- May all go well with you. →Ten thousandthinglikemeaning.
5 In-depth research and discussion
In the above chapters, you can roughly understand and learn the basic Hakka language, but if you want to better understand the background culture and meaning carried by the Hakka language, you need to conduct more in-depth research and discussions. Although the Hakka language is also a branch of the Chinese family, due to factors such as changes in time and space, the migration of the Hakka people, the interaction and integration of multiple languages, and the differences in history and culture, the Hakka language has unique elements.
For example, "Thank you", "Thank you", "Thank you", "Grateful", "Grateful" in Chinese, Hokkien also use the same or similar "Thank you", "Thank you", "Thank you", etc., and Cantonese use "Thank you" and "Wu Gai", etc. These different Chinese families can mostly understand the words "thank you" literally, but Hakka Sixian dialect uses "恁careful" and Hailu dialect uses "Thank you" , but this is because of the taboo words produced by the euphemistic usage of the Hakka language. It is difficult to understand the literal meaning and the cultural meaning behind it without a detailed and in-depth discussion.
The following is a list of the author's other articles on Hakka. If readers are interested in in-depth understanding, they can choose to read them for reference:
- <How do you say "thank you" in Taiwanese Hakka? What is the difference between "恁careful" and "thanks to you"?>
- <How do you say "mother/mother" in Taiwanese Hakka? Why use the word "M" in "Em"?>
- <How do you say "I" in Taiwanese Hakka? Why use the special character "Qianya"?>
- <How do you say "Hello" in Taiwanese Hakka? Hakka greetings, greetings, greetings explanations>
- <What is the difference between the North Four Counties and the South Four Counties? Analysis and comparison of the differences between the northern and southern accents of Taiwanese Hakka dialects in four counties>
- <What is the difference between the four counties and Hailu? Why the opposite tone? Analysis and comparison of the differences between the two dominant accents of Taiwanese Hakka>
6 Learning experience and conclusion
The author is not a Hakka, so my mother tongue is Chinese and Hokkien instead of Hakka. Furthermore, I never grew up in a Hakka-speaking environment. Before I was exposed to and learned Hakka, the only place where I heard the most Hakka was the Hakka broadcasting system in train stations and buses. In fact, before learning Hakka, I was originally interested in "comparative languages". I felt that languages of different languages but with similar development history would have many similarities and similarities. At that time, I read the history and development of many languages, and I generally knew the relationship between Hakka and the Chinese family, but I didn't have a deeper understanding of pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and other related content.
However, the reason why I was interested in "comparative languages" at that time was because there was a compulsory course "Elementary Foreign Languages" in the second year of university. In addition to English, there were various other foreign languages to choose from (Japanese, French, Spanish, German, Korean, etc.). I majored in Japanese in my sophomore year, and although I didn’t have a compulsory foreign language elementary course in my junior year, I still took French in my junior year. Because when I was studying elementary Japanese in my sophomore year, there were many similar vocabulary between Japanese and Chinese, so I began to look for language comparison materials. Three wanted to learn another language, so I chose French. Although I didn't have much interest in Hakka after learning comparative language studies, because I wanted to get in touch with different types of languages at that time, I felt that Hakka and Chinese were too similar. But then there was a friend whose father is Hakka and mother is Hokkien. He thought he wanted to use Hakka to communicate with his grandparents but he couldn’t speak Hakka, so he went to Kaohsiung’s "Easy to Learn Hakka" course , knowing that I am interested in "comparative language studies", I went to learn Hakka with him. Since then, I have only started to learn Hakka, and I have learned the interesting things about it.
The teacher in this class is a native of Hokkien. Later, he became interested and learned Hakka by himself. He is also very interested in Hakka culture. On the contrary, he speaks Hakka better than many Hakka people. He can also speak Hokkien in class. The places and vocabulary similar to Hakka, so I can memorize Hakka words more quickly. The teacher also said some similarities and differences between Hokkien culture and Hakka culture. I am very fortunate to know both Hokkien and Hakka culture and language at the same time. I definitely get more lessons from teachers who only know Hakka, especially because I know Hokkien myself, which speeds up my learning of Hakka. In addition, what surprised me was that there were about 40 to 50 people in the class, but only five students were Hakka people, the rest were Hokkien people, and only my friends and the teacher's assistant were young people. Most of the other students are elderly people, which shows that many non-Hakka people are willing to learn Hakka after retirement. However, this course is designed for beginners who have never been exposed to Hakka. The content is mostly pronunciation, simple sentences and Hakka culture. Therefore, after the course is over, I will buy other books related to Hakka by myself in order to go deeper. understanding and learning Hakka.
In addition, if you learn Hakka from the perspective of knowing both Chinese and Hokkien while your mother tongue is not Hakka, you can discover many unique words in Hakka. Hakka language has to use words that cannot be understood literally.ye carefully", so this aroused my great curiosity and in-depth understanding of the reasons. I found out that it is the relationship between pronunciation and cultural background. The relationship will not feel that it is strange to use "恁carefully", but will not specifically ask why there is such a unique usage. Finally, if one's mother tongue is one of the Chinese family, it is easier to learn other Chinese language than for a person who does not know any Chinese family at all. Even if there are some differences in grammar, most of the situations are similar, and It is not as difficult as other foreign languages in the semester and does not need to be memorized. Most of the time, you only need to replace the vocabulary with Hakka vocabulary. However, knowing Chinese and Hokkien at the same time has the advantage of learning Hakka faster, because Hakka There are more common vocabulary between Hokkien and Hokkien, such as "place" and "location" in Chinese, while Hokkien and Hakka also use the word "location". Therefore, language can allow people to enter the culture of a nation, understand history from culture, and learn how to view themselves and others from history, and even one of the important keys to understand the past and future of international relations; therefore, if you want to learn a variety of Chinese languages language, but at the same time want to understand Taiwanese culture and history, then it is a good choice to understand Taiwan's second largest ethnic group "Hakka" and its culture and learn Hakka.
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- 2022/05/16, multilingual version added.
- 2021/10/02, add "The difference between the four counties and the land and sea" article and link.