The accent used by most people in Taiwanese Hakka is the Sixian accent, and the Sixian accent is further divided into the Northern Sixian accent and the Southern Sixian accent. What is the difference between these two accents? Will the difference be big? This article will explain in detail the differences between the two, as well as a comparative analysis of the differences between each other.
Table of contents
The second largest ethnic group in Taiwan is the Hakka people, and their mother tongue is Hakka, but the Hakka language in Taiwan is divided into four counties,, Dapu, Raoping, Zhao’an, etc., and the most widely used accent is Sixian accent, including train platforms, buses, MRT, etc. The broadcasting system is usually based on Hakka in Sixian accent , so when non-native Hakka speakers want to learn Hakka, most of them choose to learn Sixian accent.
However, although most Hakka learners choose Sixian accent more often, when they choose to learn Sixian accent, they may find out why there is a "Nansixian accent"? What is the difference between Sixian accent and Nansixian accent?
The four-county dialect of Taiwanese Hakka is divided into the northern four-county dialect (or called Si-xian dialect, Bei-si-xian dialect, Bei-si-xian dialect, Bei-si-xian dialect, Miaoli dialect, etc.) and the southern four-county dialect ( or Nansi County dialect, Nansi County dialect, Liudui dialect, etc.), although they belong to the same four counties, they can generally communicate with each other, but there are still some differences in some vocabulary and phonology. Due to the difference between the north and the south, there are two kinds of accents used in the competition, the four counties in the north and the four counties in the south.
In short, although the vocabulary and phonology of the four counties in the south and the north are slightly different, but because the overall similarity is quite high, after learning the accents of the four counties in the north, learning the accents in the four counties in the south is more important than learning other accents It is much easier, and it is also easy to pass the Hakka certification of both the northern and southern accents. But will there be a lot of difference between the accents of the four counties in the south and the north? What is the difference? This article will introduce the differences between the two in detail and compare and contrast them with each other.
2 Scope of discussion
There are many Hakka-speaking populations in the world, including mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Suriname, India, Bangladesh, Bangladesh, and other Chinese Hakka communities. Every place in the region has different types, dialects, sub-dialects, and accents of Hakka, with a large number of categories. (For detailed Hakka classification, please refer to <How do you say it in Hakka?〉 article, there is a complete introduction to Hakka. )
The Taiwanese Hakka language is divided into four county accents,Cantonese, Dapu, Raoping, Zhao'an and other accents, but the title of this article is "Differences in the accents of the four counties in the north and south", so the text mentionedFocusing on the differences between the "Northern Sixian dialect" and "Southern Sixian dialect" in the Sixian dialect of Hakka in Taiwan, other types of Hakka and their content and usage are not within the scope of this article. If you want to understand the "four counties" and ""What is the difference, you can refer to <Four counties anddifference〉 article, there is a detailed introduction.
3 Background knowledge
Regardless of whether it is the northern four counties or the southern four counties, the Sixian dialect is originally one of the Hakka languages in Taiwan. Before understanding the differences between the northern four counties and the southern four counties, if you can have a general understanding of the concept of "Hakka" If you understand it, it will be helpful to understand this article, including the various types, distribution, user groups, number of users, basic pronunciation vocabulary, etc. of Hakka. In addition, the Hakka Pinyin used in this article uses the "Taiwanese Hakka Pinyin Scheme", and some phonetic symbols will be added in some places.
Therefore, the basic concepts and overview of the Hakka language, as well as the instructions on the use of phonetic symbols, are all written in <How do you say it in Hakka?〉In this article, readers can take the time to read it.
4 Difference Discussion
When learning Hakka, one of the Hakka languages that most people are most likely to come into contact with and learn is Sixian dialect, and Sixian dialect is divided into North Sixian dialect and South Sixian dialect. For learners, it may feel Curious, what is the difference between the Hakka dialect in the four counties in the north and the south? The following will analyze, explain and compare the differences between the two in detail in terms of the number of users, geographical distribution, language classification, phonology and pronunciation, and vocabulary and words.
4.1 Name differences
Due to the difference in the number of people used and the distribution of the scope of the four counties in the north and the four counties in the south, there are differences in the names. The following will compare some of the different names in the four counties in the north and the four counties in the south in detail, and explain the origin and reason.
|Classification||name, appellation, alias||Origin and Description|
|North Four County accent||Four counties, four county dialects, four county dialects, four county accents||Since the number of users and the scope of the four northern counties are the widest, while the four southern counties are relatively small, usually, if the "four counties in the north" are not specifically used to distinguish them from the four counties in the south, the "four counties" will be used to refer to the north. four counties. For example, the Hakka Council's "Dictionary of Commonly Used Hakka Words in Taiwan" uses "four counties" to refer to the four northern counties, and additionally uses "four southern counties" as a distinction; the Ministry of Education's "Hakka Pinyin Learning Network" also uses "four "Xianqiang" and "Nansixianqiang" are used to distinguish between the south and the north. The same is true for Hake Learning Network and Hakyu Certification.|
|Beisixian, Beisixian accent, Beisixian accent, Beisixian dialect, Beisixian accent||Directly use the "Northern Four Counties" to distinguish from the "Southern Four Counties".|
|Miaoli accent, Miaoli tone||Because the number of people who use the four counties is the widest and the most frequently used location is in Miaoli, it is sometimes called Miaoli cavity. However, the four-county cavity is widely distributed and not only concentrated in Miaoli, so it is rarely used. call.|
|Northern Hakka, Northern Hakka, Northern Hakka||Since Sixian is the most widely used Hakka language in Taiwan, some places directly use northern Hakka and other words to refer to the northern Sixian dialect, but this usage is not accurate and cannot reflect the classification of various Taiwanese Hakka languages. .|
|Nansi County accent||Nansi County, Nansi County Dialect, Nansi County Dialect, Nansi County Dialect, Nansi County Dialect||Directly use the "four counties in the south" to distinguish them from the "four counties in the north".|
|Liudui, Liudui Hakka, Liudui Hakka, Liudui Hakka||Since the population of Nansi County is usually distributed in the Liudui area of southern Taiwan, "Liudui" is used as the name of the local Hakka dialect.|
|Southern Hakka, Southern Hakka, Southern Hakka||Since the Sixian accent is the most widely used Hakka language in Taiwan, some places directly use southern Hakka words to guide the Sixian accent, but this usage is relatively imprecise and cannot reflect the various Taiwanese Hakka dialects. Classification.|
4.2 Differences in the number of users
According to the investigation by Hakka Committee, 58.4% of Hakka people use Sixian accent, 7.3% of Nansixian accent,The dialect is 44.8%, the Dapu dialect is 4.1%, the Raoping dialect is 2.6%, and the Zhao’an dialect is 1.7%. Since the same person may speak more than one Hakka sub-dialect, the sum of statistics will always exceed 100%. It can be seen from the data that the four counties,They are the first and second most used respectively, and the four southern counties rank third, although the southern four counties are not as good as the northern four counties and, but due to the four northern counties andIt is a large number, so it is likely that people who use other accents or languages will learn to use both the North Four Counties and the.
As for non-native Hakka speakers, usually when learning Hakka, they will give priority to learning the four-county dialect, because whether it is the train platform broadcasting system, the bus broadcasting system, the MRT broadcasting system, etc., the four-county dialect is the main one. Books and textbooks also use the Sixian dialect as the most popular, and the number of users is also the largest. However, the northern four counties and the southern four counties can generally communicate normally. There are only some differences in vocabulary and phonology. Sixianhui is easier than learning other accents.
4.3 Differences in Geographical Distribution
Because the number of people using the four-county accent is the widest and the most frequently used location is in Miaoli County, it is sometimes called Miaoli accent. However, the four-county accent is widely distributed and not only concentrated in Miaoli County, so it is relatively Use this term sparingly. As for the Liudui area of southern Taiwan, the vocabulary and phonology of the four-county accents in the north such as Miaoli are slightly different, so they are sometimes divided into northern four-county accents and southern four-county accents. For example, Hakka-related textbooks published by the Ministry of Education , and Hakka authentication.
The following are the three major distribution areas of Sixian Qiang, as well as the finer divisions:
- Northern Taiwan:
- Taoyuan City: Zhongli, Pingzhen, Yangmei (partial) Longtan.
- Hsinchu County: Guanxi Town (part), Emei Township (part).
- Miaoli City, Jianqiao, Gongguan, Toufen (part), Nanzhuang (part), Dahu, Tongluo, Sanyi, West Lake, Touwu, Zhuolan (most), Tongxiao (part), Houlong (part ).
- Liudui area in southern Taiwan:
- Pingtung County: Zhutian, Wanluan, Neipu, Changzhi, Linluo, Xinpi, Jiadong, Gaoshu.
- Kaohsiung City: Meinong, Shanlin, Liugui.
- Eastern Taiwan:
- Taitung County: Chishang, Guanshan, Luye, Chenggong, Taimali, Beinan.
- Hualien County: Ji'an, Hualien, Fuli.
Types and distribution of Hakka in Taiwan. (Click on image to enlarge to view original size)
In 2010, the proportion of people aged six and over in Taiwan, Penghu, Jinma and Ma who spoke the language at home (you can choose multiple languages) in the urban population of the township where they are located.
The Liudui area in Pingtung, Kaohsiung is also the distribution area of Nansi County dialect.
4.4 Classification differences
Although the four counties in the north and the four counties in the south belong to the same category of Taiwanese Hakka, they can also have more detailed sub-dialects.
- Cantonese and Taiwanese films
- Mei Hui small piece
- Four County accent
- North Four County accent
- Toufen cavity
- Longtan Opera
- Nansi County accent
- Wu Luo Qiang
- Inner Chinese
- Mino accent
- North Four County accent
- Four County accent
- Mei Hui small piece
- Cantonese and Taiwanese films
|TaiwanHakkaDialect of four counties||Nansi County||Wuluoci dialect||Pingtung|
|Mino sub dialect||Kaohsiung|
|North four counties||Toufen dialect||Miaoli|
4.5 Pronunciation differences
The difference between the four counties in the north and the four counties in the south is not only the difference in the number of users, distribution, and classification mentioned above, but also the difference in pronunciation that can best reflect the difference between the two. , pitch change, etc. What are the differences in pronunciation.
4.5.1 Initial difference
Most of theThe Hakka dialects in the four counties only have 18 consonants, but in southern Taiwan LiuduiThe Hakka dialects in Gaoshu, Jiadong and Xinpi have 19 initials, because the high vowel zero initials of the Hakka languages in these three regions will have friction, soOne more initial "rh"(The International Phonetic Alphabet is "ʒ" and the phonetic symbol is "ㄖ").
|North four counties||Nansi County|
|Gaoshu, Jiadong, Xinpi||other|
|number of initials||18||19||18|
The following are examples of Chinese characters with the initial consonant "i" in Hakka (without marking the tone).
4.5.2 Differences in Finals
One of the most important reasons for communication barriers among languages, dialects, sub-dialects or tones is that the finals are too different. The following will discuss some differences between the finals of the northern and southern tones of the four county dialects of Taiwanese Hakka.
In addition, if the following table has a distinction of "Others" in the column of the four southern counties under the four counties, it means that besides Gaoshu, Jiadong, and Xinpi in Pingtung, the other six areas include Meinong and Shanlin in Kaohsiung. , Liugui, and eight Hakka towns in Pingtung, including Zhutian, Changzhi, Linluo, Neipu, and Wanluan.
18.104.22.168 Separation, combination and presence of "ii"
Generally speaking, most Hakka dialects (including the four northern counties and some southern four counties) have "i" (the phonetic symbol is "ㄧ" and the International Phonetic Alphabet is "i"), and usually also have "ii" (the phonetic symbol is "ㆨ" or "ㄭ", and the International Phonetic Alphabet is "ɨ"), but the Liudui in southern TaiwanGaoshu, Jiadong, Xinpi and other places will change the pronunciation of the final "ii" to "i", and also change the initials "z, c, s" to "j, q, x" , the following is the comparison(without pitch).
|example word||four counties|
|North four counties||Nansi County|
|Gaoshu, Jiadong, Xinpi||other|
By the way, apart from Gaoshu, Jiadong, Xinpi and some Nansi county dialects where "ii" is pronounced "i", Yunlin's Zhao'an dialect and Zhuolan's Raoping dialect also have this phenomenon (Taoyuan This is not the case with the Zhaoan accent of Taoyuan, the Raoping accent of Taoyuan, and other Hakka accents).
In addition, from the above description, it can be known that most of the Nansixian dialects have the apical vowel "ii", exceptMost people in Gaoshu, Xinpi, Jiadong and other areas have incorporated "ii" into the front high vowel "i"(that is, neutralize these two differences into the same vowel), but they are both in Liudui areaMeinong, Wanluan, Neipu, Zhutian, etc. in the four southern counties still retain the distinction between "ii" and "i"., the following is a comparison (without marking the tone).
|example word||Mino||Wan Luan||tall tree||Xinpi|
|zii||zii||the ji||the ji|
|the ji||the ji|
22.214.171.124 The difference between "ian" and "ien"
Among the various sub-dialects of Taiwanese Hakka, the differences in vowels, the most interesting and important theme is probably the changes of "ian", "ien" and "iat", "iet". Let's look at the following list first (not marked tone).
|example word||four counties|
|North four counties||Nansi County|
|Gaoshu, Xinpi, Jiadong||other|
Taking the Hakka dialect in Meinong again, you will find that the changes between "ian", "ien", "iat", and "iet" have a great relationship with the initial consonants, as shown in the table below (the tone is not marked).
|Classification||"ian", "ien" and "iat", "iet" in Mino Shonai|
However, Hakka dialects spoken in Liudui area of southern Taiwan except Meinongzhuang (for example: Gaoshu, Jiadong, Changzhi, Xinpi, Neipu, etc.), no matter which initial consonant is followed, only "ien" and "iet ", and the finals of "ian" or "iat" are not pronounced, please see the table below (without marking the tone).
In other words, it is like the rule of changing "ian" to "ien" in Chinese (the phonetic "ㄢ" alone is pronounced as the chorus of "ㄚㄋ", but "ㄧㄢ" becomes "ㄧㄝㄋ", the same is Example of changing from "ㄧㄚㄋ" to "ㄧㄝㄋ"), the Nansi County accents other than Chinese and Meinong will not change no matter what initial consonant they are connected to, while the Meinong accent will be produced according to the initial in front of the final. ian" and "ien" with conditional phonological changes.
In addition, there is also an example of the final that causes the change of "a" to "e" is "uat". However, due to this situation, there are not many characters, and only a few literatures discuss it. Two words are used as examples (without marking the tone).
|example word||Gaoshu, Changzhi, Jiadong||Guangxing, Dexie, Jidong|
126.96.36.199 The difference between "ai" and "e"
The entire system of the Chinese family is slowly developing towards the restriction that "intermediate sounds and vowel endings cannot be the same". For example, many "iai" in Chinese are now pronounced as "ia" (for example: "Ya"). Similarly, the Hakka language has the same development. In the Meinong area, the older generation (over 55 years old) usually say "songˊ kiaiˊ" for the word "shangjie", while middle-aged people (about 30 to 50 years old Between) are often used in both "songˊ kiaiˊ" and "songˊ kieˊ". Most of the younger generation say "songˊ kieˊ", while some primary school students will say "songˊ kieˊ" or "songˊ keˊ".
From the above example, it can be seen that the transformation of "iai"→"ie"→"e" shows that the changes of finals such as "iai, ie, ai, e" are not completely stable. The following sorts out some differences (without marking the tone).
|example word||four counties|
|North four counties||Nansi County|
|Mino, Takaki, Changzhi, etc.||other|
188.8.131.52 Difference between "i" and "ui"
Gaoshu, Xindi, Jiadong, etc. in the Liudui area in southern Taiwan, for the sounds of "vi", "fi" and "mi", some people will pronounce them as "vui", "fui" or "mui". Even the same person may use the two interchangeably.
However, according to traditional phonology, "there is no light lip" (the "light lip" here refers to the "labiodental sound"), so the voiced initial "v" of Hakka's labiodental sound probably comes from the back high vowel "u "" extension and strengthening (friction), the change of Hakka "i" and "ui" just provides this proof.
In addition, the different pronunciation of "i" and "ui" only occurs behind the bilabial consonants "b", "p", "m" and labiodental "f", "v", which shows that there is some alienation from the labial consonants Therefore, this is because "ui" has a labial vowel "u". See the table below for example words (without marking the tone).
|example word||four counties|
|North four counties||Nansi County|
|Gaoshu, Xinpi, Jiadong||other|
|Stomach||vi||vi / vui||vi|
|No||the fi||fi / fui||the fi|
|Every||mi||mi / mui||mi|
From the table above, it can be seen that most of the four counties (including the four northern counties and the four southern counties) use "i", and only a few of the four southern counties (Gaoshu, Xinpi, Jiadong, etc.) use "ui" at the same time, but few Some of the four northern counties actually use "ui", for example: Zhongliao and Xinyi, see the table below.
|The rhyme of "fat"||four counties|
|i||Jingshan, Pinglin, Shuangliantan, Zhongshan, Dongsheng, Baibufan, Puwei, Xipingli, Erlin, Zhutang, Pitou, Xizhou, Guoxing, Yuchi, Shuili|
4.5.3 Tone differences
The northern four-county dialect of Taiwanese Hakka is the same as some southern four-county dialects, but it is different from some southern four-county dialects, such as Meinong District in Kaohsiung City. The difference between North and South Four County Meinong Tune and South Four County Meinong Tune lies in the "Yin Ping Tune" (the first tone in the Hakka dialect) in the flat tone of the four tones.The tone quality (tone value) of the Yinping tune in the northern four counties and some of the southern four counties is "24", but the Meinong accent in the southern four counties is "33"., a more detailed comparative analysis is arranged in the following table (taking the character "花" as an example).
|Hakka accent||The four northern counties and some of the four southern counties||Part of the four southern counties (eg: Meinong)|
|Hakka tone||1st sound|
|Chinese four tones||level voice|
|Four tones of yin and yang||Yinping|
|Hakka Example Words||flower|
|pronunciation essentials||short rise||Zhongping|
4.5.4 Differences in pitch transposition
Continuous modulation is also called modulation,Most languages of the Chinese family have continuous tone sandhi, and Hakka is no exception. The so-called tone sandhi refers to the fact that the original tone will change in certain contexts or situations, such as the Chinese "yougood" to "yougood", the following will introduce the differences in tone transposition between the four counties in the South and North.
184.108.40.206 Tone Modification Differences of Compound Words
existfour countiesIn the compound words (two-character words), if the preceding character isYinping tone (tone value 24) and the following characters are Yinping (tone value 24), Qusheng (tone value 55) or Yangru (tone value 5) toneIf so, then the characters in front Yinping tone (tone value 24) should beChange it to Yangping tune (tone value 11);But whenPart of the four southern counties (for example: Meinong accent)Among the compound words of , if the tone of the preceding word isYangping (tone value 11) tone and not placed at the end of the word, no matter what tone is followed by a word, the tone of the previous word must beChange it to Yinping tone (the tone value of Meinong accent is 33).
From this we can find two interesting phenomena of tone transposition in the four counties, that is, the direction of the tone transposition is just opposite.
|Hakka accent||Tone Modification of Compound Words|
|North Four County accent||1. Yin PingjiaYinping to Yangping
2. Yinping plus Qusheng becomes Yangping
3. Yinping plus Yang into Yangping
|Part of Nansi County accent||Yangping plus any tone becomes Yinping
Although it can be seen from the above content that the tone-modification directions of the dialects of the four counties of the South and the North are opposite, but some words in both of them become the homophony of the original tone of other words after the tone-modulation, that is, two words that are originally different in tone. After the tone of one of the words is changed, both of them become homonyms.
|North four counties||Part of Nansi County|
In addition, the Daluguan accent is two tones in Guangfu Village, Daluguan. There are seven changing rules, which belong to the low-key Yinping tune and Yangping tune, and most of the tunes after the tune change are Zhongping tunes (tone value 33 ) or middle rising tone (tone value 35), so the local rising tone will sound higher than that of Liudui Nansixian accent in other regions.
220.127.116.11 Differences in the tone sandhi of the suffix "Zai"
In addition to the tone sandhi of compound words in the Sixian accent, the tone of the noun suffix "Zai" will also change. This word will change due to the different tone of the preceding word. )” with these two pronunciations. RuofuWhen the tone of the previous character is Shangsheng (tone value 31) or Yinjin (tone value 2), "喀" should be pronounced as "eˇ; But if the previous word is unchanged when other tones. However, no matter what the tone of the preceding character of "Zai" is,None of the dialects in the four southern counties have this tone change..
|Hakka accent||Explanation of the tone change of the character "Zai"|
|North Four County accent||Add the word "Aberdeen" in the upper voice
Add the word "Aberdeen" in Yin
|Nansi County accent||There is no such tone change in the four southern counties.|
4.6 Lexical differences
Usually when looking at the difference between a language, dialect, sub-dialect or accent, the first difference is the pronunciation, but the more similar the pronunciation of the language is, the more similar the pronunciation is, only the difference of different accents can be shown, and the dialect can be more revealed The difference is the vocabulary.
Although there are some differences in pronunciation between the northern accent and the southern accent of the Taiwanese Hakka four-county dialect, the difference is not too great. Even if you still feel the difference in pronunciation, accent, etc., you can still communicate with each other normally on the whole. . Take the word "xian" in Taiwan's Hakka "Sixian dialect", the word "xian" in the northern Sixian dialect is pronounced as "ien", while the southern Sixian dialect is pronounced as "ian", but it is generally understandable the meaning expressed by the other party.
The most obvious difference is the difference in the use of vocabulary. The above-mentioned difference in the pronunciation of the word "county" in the four counties in the north and south is only in the pronunciation of the word, but it is still the same word "county". The difference in the use of vocabulary may be that some characters in a word are different, just like the Chinese word "disappeared" is "wujiantu" in the northern four counties, and "wujianhe" in the southern four counties; Vocabulary is used differently. For example, the Chinese word "thank you" is used "恁careful" in the four northern counties, while "thank you" is more commonly used in the four southern counties.
As for other than the above examples, what other lexical usages are there that are different in Hakka Beisixian accent and Nansixian accent? Although the Hakka Council’s “Elementary Hakka Vocabulary for Hakka Proficiency Certification” is divided into four counties,There are five Hakka accents, Dapu accent, Raoping accent, and Zhaoan accent, but there is no independent version of "Nansixian accent", but the Nansixian accent is merged into the four-county accent, so The vocabulary that differs between the four counties in the north and the four counties in the south will be sorted out into a table, and you can directly check the differences in the vocabulary used between the two counties. Only words with differences between the two are listed below, and no differences are listed if there is no difference.
In addition, as long as the vocabulary difference is that the pronunciation of the four counties in the north and the south is different, it will be listed, even if the vocabulary is the same, it will be listed. So and <four counties difference〉 article, in the way of selecting lexical differences is different, becauseThe pronunciation itself of the four counties will not be the same (because the tone is completely opposite), so the words will be listed if they are different, and the words that have the same length but different pronunciation will not be listed.
4.6.1 Elementary Hakka Vocabulary
There are "1284" words in the Hakka certification "Elementary Hakka" (2019), and "87" words with differences between the four counties in the south and north, and only about "6 %" Hakka elementary words in There are differences between the four counties in the South and North.
|Chinese||Hakka North Four County accent||Hakka Nansi County accent|
|vocabulary||phonetic symbols||vocabulary||phonetic symbols|
|butt||feces||sii vudˋ||feces||sii fud|
|think, feel||try||cii doˋ||measured||zed do|
|do not remember||don't remember, add||mˇ gi dedˋ, tiamˊ biong tedˋ||add core||tiamˊ biong hedˋ|
|twist; twist||twist||ngiuˋ / neuˋ||twist||niu|
|go back||turn to||zon hi||go back||gui ˊhi|
|return||transfer||zonˆloiˇ||come back||gui ˊloiˇ|
|crisp||crisp||ce||crisp||ce / coi|
|grey||mouse color||lo cuˋ sedˋ||mouse color||no cuˋ sedˋ|
|gone, gone||don't see it||mˇgien tedˋ||no nuclear||mˇgien hedˋ|
|calendar||calendar||ngied lag||calendar boy||ngiad lag eˋ|
|casual||to the fullest||qin cai||to the fullest||qin caiˊ|
|world||world||sii gie||world||sii giai|
|obesity||big hoop||tai kieuˊ||big hoop||tai ko'|
|Mother||slim Shady||a'me'||Mum||m maˋ|
|grandpa||brother in law||jiaˊgungˊ||Grandpa||ngoi aˊ gungˊ|
|grandmother||sister in law||jiaˇpoˇ||grandma||ngoi aˊpoˇ 、aˊpoˇ|
|aunt||Uncle||sug me'||Mumu, Ruo Ruo||me' me', mi' ngia'|
|Thanks||ye carefully, thanks to you||anˋziiˋse, siinˇmungˇnˇ||thanks||do'qia|
|Gift||wait for the way||den lu||delusion||ngong / nong xiongˋ|
|joke||joking||gong seu||verbal abuse||gong nag|
|Miss||little sister||se aˊjiˋeˇ||little sister||se aˊ jiˋeˋ|
|goodbye||is coming||zang loiˇ liau||is coming||ngiang / nang loiˇ liau|
|cleaning||spell scan||biang so||clean||qinˊgiadˋ|
|cake||egg cake, egg cake||gieˊ lonˋgauˊ, lonˋgauˊ||Egg Cake||geˊnonˊgauˊ, geˊlonˋgauˊ|
|Glasses||eyepiece||mug giang||glasses, glasses||ngianˋ giang ngianˋgaˊeˋ|
|Alarm clock||alarm clock boy||nau zungˊ eˋ||Alarm clock||nau zungˊ|
|at home||house, house||vugˊhaˊ, vugˋkaˊ||under the house||lugˋkaˊ|
|mouse||mouse||lo cuˋ||mouse||no cu|
|bee||Sugar bee||tongˇpungˊ eˋ||bee larvae||fungˊeˋ|
|airplane||flying machine||biˊ / fiˊ hangˊgiˊ||flying machine||biˊ / fiˊiangˇgiˊ|
|taxi||taxi||gie cangˇ caˊ||taxi||gie hangˇcaˊ|
|car||car||hi ca'||Automatic car||cii tung caˊ|
|locomotive||locomotive, odoby||giˊ caˊ, oˊdo baiˋ||engine||enˊjinˋ|
|hostel||hostel||liˊ gonˋ||hostel||li gon|
|football||football, football||jiugˋkiuˇ, giogˋkiuˇ||football, football||zugˋkiuˇ, giogˋkiuˇ|
|Zongzi||Zongzai||tag zung e||Wrapped Zongzi||go zung e|
|We||Everyone||enˊ tai gaˊ||wait for everyone||gaiˇ denˊ tai gaˊ|
|We (including all listeners)||this pocket||enˊiaˋdeuˊ||Yan Ya, etc.||ngaiˇdenˊ|
|them||Qu pocket||giˇdeuˊ||Qu etc.||iˇ denˊ / giˇienˊ|
|where||who||nai vi||which boy||nai eˋ|
|We (excluding the addressee)||Yanyadou, Yanyadou||ngaiˇ deuˊ 、ngaiˇiaˋdeuˊ||Yan Ya, etc.||ngaiˇdenˊ|
|Except; remove||In addition to||cuˇtedˋ||denuclearization||cuˇhedˋ|
|... drop; finish, end||...... Intuit||ted||……nuclear||hed|
|How many||how many||gidˋdoˊ||how many||idˋdoˊ|
|Hurry up, hurry up||suddenly||giagˋgiagˋ||A total of fast||kiung kuai / qiong kuai|
|next year; after the Chinese New Year, after the Spring Festival||New Year, Next Year, New Year)||go tedˋngienˇ, mangˇngienˇ, go eˋngienˇ||nuclear year||go hedˋngianˇ|
|Now||Here, now, now||iaˊha, gimˊ ha, hien ha||now||ginˊ ga, hian ha|
|all of a sudden||Aberdeen||idˋhaeˋ||Aberdeen||idˋ ha eˊ|
|Frequent||noir||jiab jiab||noir||diab diab|
|compared to...||compared to...||ka||Pass……||go|
|immediately, immediately, immediately||sticky, sticky||ngiamˇsiiˇ, ngiamˇpiˇ||sticky, sticky||liamˇ siiˇ, liamˇ piˇ|
|daytime||time of day||ngidˋ siiˇ teuˇ||time of day||ngidˋ siiˋ teuˇ|
|……beside||……lip||sun||……lip||siinˇ / sunˇ|
|tomorrow, next day||sunny day||tienˊ gongˊngidˋ||sunny day||tiangˊgongˊngidˋ|
|Again; just now, just, only, equivalent to "cai" in Chinese||just||zang||just||ngiang / nang / lang|
|often||long, long||congˇgienˊ、congˇteu||long time, often, often||congˊgianˊ, denˊsongˇ, ginˊsongˇ|
(2) Intermediate and Advanced Hakka Vocabulary
There are "1760" words in the Hakka Certification "Intermediate and Advanced Hakka" (2019), and there are "283" words with differences between the four counties in the south and north, about "16 %" intermediate and middle The advanced vocabulary is different in the four counties of South and North.
|Chinese||Hakka North Four County accent||Hakka Nansi County accent|
|vocabulary||phonetic symbols||vocabulary||phonetic symbols|
|go crazy; have a nightmare||crazy||bodˋkongˇ||Fading||bodˋ qiangˊ miangˇ|
|smoke, smoke||To smoke||buˇienˊ||To smoke||bagˊianˊ|
|ankle||foot beads||giogˋmugˋzuˊ||Pearl||giogˋmugˋzuˊ inˇ|
|Throat||throat||heuˇ lienˇ||throat diameter||heuˇ lienˇ guang|
|Blood vessel||Blood vessel||hied gon||Blood vessel||hiad gon|
|body||round body||ienˇsiinˊ||round body||ianˇsiinˊ|
|attack||lift up||kiaˇhiˋloiˇ||lift up||kiangˇhiˋloiˇ|
|fist||Fist girl||kienˇ teuˇ maˇ||Fist girl||kianˇteuˇmaˇ|
|uncomfortable||not natural||mˇcii ienˇ||not natural||mˇcii ianˇ|
|Hard of hearing, hard of hearing||behind-the-ear||ngiˋ poi poi eˋ||behind-the-ear||ngiˋ poi poi eˊ|
|hospitalized||admission||ngib ien||admission||ngib ian|
|brain matter||brain shit||no siiˋ||Brain pulp||noˋ siiˋ jiongˊ|
|upset||upset||au nau||annoyed||au zau|
|sulking||send out||bod ad||Yan Yan||adˋ adˋ|
|easy, comfortable; of course, without a doubt||nature||cii ienˇ||nature||cii ianˇ|
|Difficult; sad; difficult||hard||ganˊ / gienˊ kuˋ||hard||gianˊ kuˋ|
|shy||Shocked||giangˊ gien seu||Shocked||giangˊ gian seu|
|Decide||Decide||gied tin||Decide||giad tin|
|persist in||persist in||gienˊ ciiˇ||persist in||gianˊ ciiˇ|
|enjoyable||Wish||go ngien||Wish||go ngian|
|get used to something||Momentum||guan se||routine||guan xi|
|to complain||blame||ien||blame||the ian|
|Think||talking, talking||va doˋ, lauˋ doˋ||feel||go do|
|learn||learn||liau gie||learn||liauˋ giaiˋ|
|jealousy||Muchi, Muzhuhong||mugˋ cagˋ, mugˋ zuˊ fungˇ||jealous||ngianˇfungˇ|
|Smile||Xiaoxiaozi||seu seu eˋ||Xiaoxiaozi||seu seu eˊ|
|them||He's got people, he's got friends||giˇ deuˊ nginˇ, giˇ deuˊ saˇ||Qu etc.||iˇ denˊ / nenˊ|
|you||You go around, you go around||ngˇ deuˊ nginˇ, ngˇ deuˊ saˇ||wait||nˇ denˊ / nenˊ|
|We (excluding the addressee)||Yanyadouren, Yanyadoupei||ngaiˇ deuˊ nginˇ, ngaiˇ deuˊ saˇ||Yan Ya, etc.||ngaiˇ denˊ, ngaiˇnenˊ|
|other people||others||ped saˇnginˇ||other peers||ped saˇ|
|conceal, hide||cover up||am' den||cover up||amˊdenˋ|
|The act of sucking (for smoking)||㗘||bog||㗘||bag|
|smoke (smoking)||㗘 smoke||bog ienˊ||㗘 smoke||bag ian'|
|poke, top||poke out||dung||poke out||tung|
|illustrate||commentary||gie sod||commentary||giai sod|
|explain||explain||gie siid||explain||giaiˋ siidˋ|
|picky eater||pick food||gien siid||pick food||gianˋsiid|
|lift up||lift||hienˊ / ienˊ||lift||hianˊ/ianˊ|
|take away||take away||kiaˇzeuˋ||title / take away||hamˇzeuˋ|
|rotate, turn||overwhelmed||lid||Ding Ding||din'|
|Tuan Tuan Zhuan (often used for people)||Turn around||lidˋlidˋzonˋ||Ding Ding Ding Zhuan||dinˊ dinˊ zonˊ|
|get, get||dance to||mu do||v u do||dance to|
|throw away||Intuit||vog ted||core||vog hed|
|Chinese cabbage||Heart white||bau'xim'pag||Shandong White||san'dung'pag|
|sparrow||roof bird||vugˋiamˇdiauˊ、vugˋ gogˋdiauˊ||Wo Zizi||voˇ / loˇ bidˋeˋ|
|Pigeon||Moon Pigeon||ngied gabˋeˇ||Moon Pigeon||ngiad gabˋeˋ|
|swallow||Yanzi||ien eˋ||Yanzi||ian eˋ|
|moth or butterfly||Butterfly||iag eˋ||Butterfly||iab e|
|Butterfly||Young Butterfly||iongˇiag eˋ||Young Butterfly||iongˇiab eˋ|
|(animal) return to nest||turn sinus||zon deu||Guidou||guiˊdeu|
|Mud||mud ball||naiˇtonˇ||clay pot||naiˇkid|
|turn off||Ute||vuˊtedˋ||black core||vuˊ hedˋ|
|bear fruit||tie||da, gied||tie||da, giad|
|that is||on the line||qiu he||on the line||lu he|
|Gather firewood||pick up firewood||giamˋceuˇ||Nian Qiao||ngiamˊ ceuˇ|
|Soap||tea hoop||caˇguˊ||Panicine||fanˊ gienˋ / gianˋ|
|to live||Day boy||go ngidˋeˇ||Day boy||go ngidˋeˋ|
|shave||Shaved Mushrooms, Shavings||pauˇxiˊ guˊ, guadˊxiˊ||shaving mushroom||ti xiˊ guˊ|
|do needlework||Needle||kiaˇziimˊ||Take the needle||naˊ ziimˊ|
|Vest||Aberdeen||gabˋeˇ||hanging bag||gua gab e|
|to dry (clothes)||air||langˇ||air||long|
|short stay, accommodation||rest||hied||rest||hiad|
|threshold||threshold, threshold||munˇkiamˊ、fuˇkiamˊ||threshold, threshold||munˇkiamˊ、fuˇkiamˊ|
|Gloves||hands down||suˋlabˋeˇ||hands down||suˋlabˋeˋ|
|Electric pot||electric wok||tien vog eˋ||Electric cooker||tien boˊ eˋ|
|picture wall||picture wall, wall||tuˇ qiongˇ, viˇ qiongˇ||picture wall, wall||tuˇxiongˇ, viˇxiongˇ|
|cupboard||cupboard, bowl stack||vonˋcuˇ, vonˋcan eˋ||Zhanzi||can e|
|fork||plug||cab eˇ||plug||cab e|
|tea||tea rice||caˇmiˋ||tea heart||caˇximˊ|
|Red yeast rice distiller's grains||bad mom||zoˊ maˇ||distiller's grains||jiuˋzoˊ|
|ice cubes||ice cream||ben'kud||ice cream||ben' kid|
|Steamed bun||Steamed bun||manˇteuˇ||Steamed bun||man' to|
|Fucai||Garlic||pug coi||Garlic||fug coi|
|pork belly||triple meat||samˊ cenˇ ngiugˋ||Three-layer nitrile||samˊ cenˇ jiangˊ|
|touch river clams||looking for clams||mi hanˋeˇ||looking for clams||mi hanˋeˋ|
|Grinding||Grinding Boiled Rice||mo banˆeˇ||Grinding Boiled Rice||mo ban e|
|Deep-fried dishes, tempura||Boiled vegetables||poˇ coi||Boiled vegetables||peuˇ coi|
|very refreshing||when cool||dongˊ songˋ||cover refreshingly||goi songˋ kuai|
|strong||strong||gienˊ kiongˇ||strong||gianˊ kiongˇ|
|very bright||Guanghuahua||gongˊ vaˇ vaˇ||Guanghuahua||gongˊfaˇfaˇ|
|Lucky||Lucky||lucky||lucky||iun hi hoˋ|
|Reality||Reality||hien siid||Reality||hian siid|
|Filial piety||filial piety, filial piety||hienˇ hau, iuˊ hau||filial piety, filial piety||hianˇ hau, iuˊ hau|
|good luck||so empty||hoˋkungˊ||so empty||hoˋ kangˊ|
|Task||Task||im vu||Task||ngim vu|
|small or thin||young cub||iu iu eˋ||young cub||iu iu eˊ|
|destiny||fate||iun miang||destiny||miang iun|
|slight, insignificant; easy||Lightweight||kiangˊ koˋeˇ||Lightweight||kiangˊ koˋeˊ|
|generous, generous||generous||koi||Roughly||tai koiˋ|
|miserable cold look||Leng Qin Qin Zi||langˊxim xim eˋ||Leng Qin Qin Zi||langˊxim xim eˊ|
|flexible||skid||liuˊ liagˋ||skid||liu liag|
|Nothing at all||no half breath||moˇ ban xid||no half breath||moˇ ban xidˋ|
|very hard||hard||ngang ngang||hard||diag ngang|
|desire||desire||ngien mong||desire||ngian mong|
|desire; addiction||wish head||ngien teuˇ||wish head||ngian teuˇ|
|rich||plentiful||pong' pai||Vegetables||cam coi|
|anyhow||to the fullest||qinˋqinˋcaiˋcaiˋ||to the fullest||qin qin caiˊ caiˊ|
|extremely intimate||Intimate boy||qinˊ nagˋ nagˋeˇ||Intimate boy||qinˊ nagˋ nagˊeˊ|
|complacent; love present||Sand nose||sa'pi||wind god||fungˊ siinˇ|
|color||color eyes||sed mug||color lips||sedˋ siinˇ/xinˇ|
|Mimi's smile||smile mimi boy||seu miˊ miˊ eˋ||smile mimi boy||seu miˊ miˊ eˊ|
|Generous||generous||tai banˊ, tai fongˊ||outstanding||cud zung|
|deliberately||challenge||tiauˊ sii、tiauˊ tiauˊ||tick test||ti sii|
|dark; dirty||Wu Shushuzi||vuˊ soˇ soˇ eˋ||Wu Shushuzi||vuˊ soˇ soˇ eˊ|
|pouting, looking displeased||pouty boy||zoi du du eˋ||pouty boy||zoi du du eˊ|
|almost||strong will||kiongˇkiongˇvoi||risk meeting||hiamˋhiamˋvoi|
|go to jail||Sit down||coˊ gonˋ eˇ||in jail||co'gam'|
|the court||the court||fab ien||the court||fab ian|
|court, the level of the executive branch||……hospital||...... ien||……hospital||... ian|
|force||force||pu cui||force||pu dui|
|invite; gather||make up||ceu||invite||ieu'|
|father in law||old man||congˊ minˊ loˋ||old man||congˊ minˇ loˋ|
|The original intention is to take time out, to take time, and it is extended to be active, but it must be actively done||draw room, draw||cuˊ gienˊ, cuˊ kienˊ||draw room, draw||cuˊ gienˊ, cuˊ gianˊ|
|genealogy||genealogy||cug pu||genealogy||cug puˊ|
|care about||care about||gie gau||care about||gie gau|
|complain, blame||to blame||gien guai||to blame||gian guai|
|suggestion||suggestion||gien ngi||suggestion||gian ngi|
|no matter who||To see people||gien nginˇ||To see people||gian nginˇ|
|advice||persuasion||kien va||persuasion||kian va|
|support||lead into||kienˊ siinˇ||lead into||kianˊ siinˇ|
|rogue||Bass eel||luˇmanˇeˋ||Perch head||luˇ manˇ teuˇ|
|enthusiastic||enthusiastic||ngied ximˊ||enthusiastic||ngiad ximˊ|
|slave||slave||nungˇ coiˇ||slave||nuˇ coiˇ|
|baby||baby boy||oˇ nga eˋ||baby boy||oˊ ngaˊ eˋ / oˊ ngaˊ eˋ|
|elder||World adults||sii tai nginˇ||adults||tai nginˇsaˇ|
|Sister-in-law||Sister-in-law||tai soˋ||Big sister-in-law||tai aˊ soˋ|
|pretend||cheater, faker, faker||za i e, ga i e, ga hi e||cheating||za sii, ti sii|
|Refers generally to the back; last||wrap tail||bau'mi'||last||zui miˊ|
|beside||lip, lip, lip||bienˊ sunˊ, sunˇ bienˊ, sunˇ hong||lips||siinˇheuˋ|
|silently; shut up, be quiet||Tian Tianzi||diamˊ diamˊ eˋ||Tian Tianzi||diamˊ diamˊ eˊ|
|heartily||Take it easy, take it easy||fong se eˋ, biong se||try to||qin lion|
|There||The trace, the item||ge jiagˋ vi eˋ, ge hong||The interest||ge xidˊ|
|how long||how long||gidˋgiuˋ||how long||idˋgiuˋ|
|Anyone can...||When you meet people, you..., when you meet people, you...||gien nginˇ qiu……, gien nginˇ qiu siiˊ||meet people...||gian nginˇ qiu...|
|in the room||Between the belly, between the belly item, the middle belly, the middle item||gienˊ duˋ, gienˊ duˋ hong, gienˊ duˋ eˋ, gienˊ hong||Between the belly, between the belly item, the middle belly, the middle item||gianˊ duˋ, gianˊ duˋ hong, gianˊ duˋ eˊ, gianˊ hong|
|sometimes||Under the handle||ha ba eˇ||Under the handle||ha ba e|
|all of a sudden||so sweet||hoˋ diamˊ diamˊ||so sweet||hoˋdiamˋdiamˋ|
|year round||all year round||idˋngienˇteu tienˊ||all year round||idˋngianˇteu tienˊ|
|a period of time||Yibazi||idˋbogˋeˇ||Yibazi||idˋbogˋeˋ|
|more and more...||more and more...||ied loiˇ ied...||more and more...||iad loiˇ iad...|
|Insist on, force people to do things they are not capable of or unwilling to do||strong, tough, tough||kiongˊ kiongˇ, ngiang ngiang, pienˊ pienˊ||dead stick||xiˋguˋ|
|Finally; later (position, time||tail down||labˊmiˊ、miˊha||tail down||ladˊmiˊ、miˊha|
|very close||Lin Lin Tsai||limˊ limˊ eˋ||Lin Lin Tsai||lim' lim' e'|
|near noon||Linri Aberdeen, Linrii Bian, Linriitou||limˇ zu eˋ, limˇ zu bienˊ, limˇ zu teuˇ||By day||dongˊ zu bienˊ|
|a little||a little boy||liog liog eˋ||a little boy||liog liog eˊ|
|not long||not long||moˇ giˋ giuˋ||not long||moˇ idˋ giuˋ|
|Era||Era||ngienˇ toi||Era||ngianˇ toi|
|most||do your best||qin hoˋ||most||zui / zuiˋ hoˋ|
|with one's own eyes||with one's own eyes, with one's own eyes||qinˊ ngienˋ, qinˊ mugˋ||with one's own eyes, with one's own eyes||qinˊ ngianˋ, qinˊ mugˋ|
|swiftly, diligently, aggressively||Shashazi||sadˋ sadˋeˇ||Shashazi||sadˋ sadˋ eˊ|
|midnight||starry midnight||sangˊ gongˊ ban ia||midnight||samˊ gongˊban ia|
|some, slight||Little Kezi||seuˋ koˋeˇ||Little Kezi||seuˋ koˋeˊ|
|beside||lip item||sun hong||lips||siinˇheuˋ|
|secretly||sneak boy||teuˊ teuˊ eˋ||sneak boy||teuˊ teuˊ eˊ|
|on the head||top of head||teuˇnaˇdangˋ||first item||teuˇnaˇhong|
|in the past||swing forward||vongˊ baiˋ, nun baiˋ||swing forward||vongˊ baiˋ, nung bai|
|Quite, very||completely new||zamˋienˇ||brand new||zamˋianˇ, zamˋmanˇ|
|not yet||Worship||mangˇ siiˋ||not yet||hanˇ / vanˇ mˇ siiˋ|
|honestly||white talk||da pag gong||To put it bluntly||gongˋpag loiˇ|
|Already... still||limit... also||han sii... hanˇ||limit... also||han sii... vanˇ|
|Have it||had||qienˇiuˊ||dare to have||gamˋ iuˊ|
|In case, if||pick up||giam-cai-||Department of quasi-speaking, quasi-speaking||he zunˋ gongˋ, zunˋ gongˋ|
|locomotive||train mom||foˋcaˊmaˇ||locomotive||foˋ caˊ teuˇ|
|the construction||the construction||gien sad||the construction||gian sad|
|car||car, dwarf||kieu caˊ, aiˇmaˇeˋ||car, dwarf||geuˊ caˊ, aiˊmaˇeˊ|
|Establish||Establish||gien lib||Establish||gian lib|
|pay a New Year call||pay a New Year call||bai ngienˇ||pay a New Year call||bai ngianˇ|
|Succession||pass incense, pass cigarettes||conˇ hiongˊ foˋ, conˇ hiongˊ ienˊ||pass incense, pass cigarettes||conˇ hiongˊ ianˊconˇ hiongˊ ianˊ|
|become in-laws||marriage, marriage||giedˊqinˊgaˊ||get married||giadˋqinˊ|
|Public Hall (the main hall where ancestor tablets are enshrined)||public hall||gung'tang'||Under the hall||tang'ha'|
|leap year||leap year||iun ngienˇ||leap year||iun ngianˇ|
|leap month||leap month||iun ngied||leap month||iun ngiad|
|New Year||New Year||ngienˇdan||New Year||ngianˇdan|
|Holidays||festival||ngienˇ jiedˋ||festival||ngianˇ jiedˋ|
|New Year's Eve||New Year's Eve||ngienˇ samˊ siib am buˊ||New Year's Eve||ngianˇ samˊ siib am buˊ|
|Lunar New Year's eve||year thirty||ngienˇsamˊsiib||year thirty||ngianˇsamˊsiib|
|Pavilion of Relics||Pavilion of Sacred Relics, Pavilion of Characters and Papers, Pavilion of Respecting Characters||siin jiagˋ/jidˋ tinˇ, sii ziiˋ tinˇ, gin sii tinˇ||Xizi Pavilion||xiagˋ sii tinˇ|
|passed away||Detox||xiaoˊtedˋ||dead core||xiˋhedˋ|
|new house||Bridal Room, Bridal Room, Bridal Room||xinˊ ngiongˇ gienˊ, xinˊ fongˇ, tung fongˇ||Bridal Room, Bridal Room, Bridal Room||xinˊ ngiongˇ gianˊ, xinˊ fongˇ, tung fongˇ|
|a little bit||One drop boy||idˋ did eˋ||One drop boy||idˋ did eˊ|
|circle (quantifier)||lock up||kienˊ||lock up||kian'|
|branch (quantifier, count branch)||cherry tree||kua||cherry tree||pa|
|Building (quantifier, house)||fall||log||building||dung|
|Discount||Discount||da zad||Discount||da zed|
|pity; waste||play cool||da song||wave nucleus||nong / long hedˋ|
|clerk||clerk||diam ienˇ||clerk||diam ianˇ|
|gamble||gamble||du gieu||gamble||du bog|
|Accounting||Accounting||fi gie||Accounting||fi gi|
|calculate||calculate||gie son||calculate||gi son|
|plan||plan||gie vag||plan||gi vag|
|on the street||street corner, street corner||gieˊ sii teuˇ, gieˊ lu teuˇ||street item, street item||giaiˊ sii teuˇ / giaiˊ lu teuˇ, giaiˊ lu hong / giaiˊ eˋ hon|
|settlement||settlement||gied son||settlement||giad son|
|cash||cash||hien gimˊ||cash||hian gimˊ|
|rich||good amount||ho ngiag||mouth, hair||iuˊ heuˋ, iuˊ bodˋ|
|gift certificate||gift certificate||liˊ kienˋ||gift certificate||li'kian|
|at a loss||Intuit||liau ted||nuclear||liau hed|
|Member of Parliament||Member of Parliament||ngi ienˇ||Member of Parliament||ngi ianˇ|
|at a loss||lose money||sad bun, liau bun||money||liauˋqienˇ|
|design; calculation||design||sad gie||design||sad gi|
|midwife||midwife||sanˋ poˇ||Lightweight woman||kiangˊ siinˊ poˇ|
|Receive a monthly salary||eclipse||siid ngied gibˋ||eclipse||siid ngiad gibˋ|
|save money||save money||cunˇqienˇ||hold money||hiabˋqienˇ|
|statistics||statistics||tung gie||statistics||tung gi|
|pork stall||pig anvil||zu'diam'||pork belly||zuˊngiugˋdamˊ|
|worth||worth||dad ded||worth||ciid ded|
|Dictionary Dictionary||dictionary||ciiˇ dienˋ||dictionary||ciiˇdiamˋ|
|swing||Dangling bars||diau gongˇ gong eˋ||swing bar||diau gongˇ gong|
|Huqin||Sawing strings, stringing strings||gi hienˇ eˋ, aiˊ hienˇeˋ||Sawing strings, stringing strings||gi hianˊ eˋ, aiˊ hianˇ eˋ|
|pen||fountain pen, perpetual pen||gong bidˋ, van ngienˇbidˋ||fountain pen, perpetual pen||gong bidˋ, van ngianˇ bidˋ|
|drum||drum boy||guˋeˇ||drum boy||gu e|
|college||college||hog ien||college||hog ian|
|script||script||kiag bun||script||kiug bun|
|climb mountains||kick hill||kied san'||Bashan||bag san'|
|serial drama||serial drama||lienˇxiug kiagˋ||serial drama||lienˇxiug kiug|
|graduate School||graduate School||ngienˊ giu soˋ||graduate School||ngianˊ giu soˋ|
|ball-point pen||ball-point pen||ngienˇziiˋbidˋ||ball-point pen||ngianˇziiˋbidˋ|
|dictionary||dictionary||sii dienˋ||dictionary||sii diam|
|long jump||long jump||tiau ienˋ||long jump||tiau ianˋ|
The main purpose of this article is to describe, discuss and compare the differences between the northern accent and the southern accent of the four-county dialect of Hakka in Taiwan. First, understand the northern four-county dialect and the southern four-county dialect from the fields of the number of speakers, geographical distribution, and language classification. The background concept and knowledge, and then discuss from various aspects of pronunciation, such as a more in-depth analysis of initials, finals, tones and tone changes, and finally list the differences in the use of southern and northern vocabulary for comparison, which has made readers A clearer understanding of the difference between the two.
Through the discussion of the above chapters, it is understood that although the four counties in the south and the north are different, they can still communicate with each other in most cases. For example, the four counties in the north and most of the four counties in the south have eighteen consonants, but the four counties in the south Only some areas of the county (Gaoshu, Jiadong, Xinpi) have an extra initial consonant; although there are differences in the finals of "ii / i", "ian / ien", "ai / e", and "i / ui", but The vowels are quite similar; except for the Yinping tone of the Meinong accent (the Yinping tone of the Meinong accent is "33", and the other four county accents are "24"), the tones of other regions are almost the same; In the tone-modifying part, only Yinping in the four northern counties and some Yangping in the four southern counties have tone-modifying differences, and there is not much difference in other contexts.
In addition, compared with the dialects of the northern counties, the dialects of the southern counties are more likely to be influenced by dominant languages such as Chinese and Hokkien for a long time. In addition, the number of speakers in the southern counties is not as large and concentrated as that of the northern counties, so Hakka People may have more than two languages, dialects or accents to face life, as well as frequent switching between different languages, which causes different degrees of changes in phonology and vocabulary when different languages come into contact with each other, resulting in Many fused or mixed sounds and vocabularies. For example, the Chinese word for "gambling" is "ㄉㄨˇ ㄅㄛˊ" (dǔ bó), and it is pronounced "duˋ" in Beisi County.(31) gieu(31)", but in Nansi County, it is pronounced as "duˋ(31) bog(2)"The pronunciation of "Bo" in the four southern counties is obviously influenced by Chinese; the word "fat" in Chinese is used in both Hakka and Hokkien as the word "big hoop", and the pronunciation of Hokkien is "tuā -khoo” (tua24 khoo55), but the northern four counties are pronounced as "tai(55) kieu'(24)"But Nansi counties are pronounced as "tai(55) ko'(24)", this is likely because the pronunciation of "Hoop" in Nansi County is influenced by Hokkien, while "Da" retains the Hakka pronunciation. From this, we can know that the four southern counties are more influenced by Chinese and Hokkien, and there are also great internal differences among the four southern counties, while the four northern counties are more uniform in comparison.
In short, although the dialects of the four counties in the south and the north are part of the four county dialects of the Hakka language in Taiwan, there is not as much difference in communication as other accents, but there are differences to a certain extent, especially many words in the four counties in the south are influenced by The influence of dominant languages such as Mandarin and Hokkien produces shadows of other languages. Therefore, in terms of classification and Hakka certification, the four-county dialect is separated from the four southern counties. If you want to learn the northern four-county accent and then learn the southern four-county accent, it is much easier than other accents, and it is easier to test Hakka certification than other accents.
- Qiu Sui (2018), <Research on the Inner Language of Nansi County Accent—Taking Neipu Hakka-speaking area as the object of investigation>. Department of Chinese Literature, National Chung Cheng University.
- Hakka Committee (2019), <Hakka certification teaching materials and test questions download>. Hacker Network Academy.
- Ministry of Education (2006), <Explanation of relevant information on the dialects of Dapu, Raoping, Zhaoan and Nan four counties>. A dictionary of frequently used Taiwanese Hakka words.
- Ministry of Education (2006), <Taiwanese Hakka Pinyin System>. A dictionary of frequently used Taiwanese Hakka words.
- Wikipedia Editor (2019), <Four County Dialect>. Wikipedia.
- Wikipedia Editor (2019), <Taiwanese Hakka>. Wikipedia.
- Wikipedia Editor (2019), <Taiwan language list>. Wikipedia.
- Zhong Rongfu (2017), "An Introduction to Taiwanese Hakka Phonetics (2 Editions)". Taipei City: Wunan.
- Luo Jili (2012), "Primary Hakka for University (with a listening CD and 100 years of Hakka test questions)". Taipei City: Wunan.
- 2022/05/16, multilingual version added.
- 2022/02/17, updated text.
- 2021/10/02, add <Four counties anddifference〉The link of the article, as well as related explanations, to show the difference between the main purpose of this article──the differences between the four counties in the north and the south, and further reading.