Hormone action: quickly understand the five important hormones that affect human growth and health







Hormone action: quickly understand the five important hormones that affect human growth and health

  The health and activities of the human body need to be coordinated by the secretions secreted by the nervous system and endocrine glands, and these secretions are "hormones". The maintenance of human health is generally affected by the five major hormones. This article will use a simple and clear way , to briefly introduce the five major hormones to the readers, which affect the health of the human body, and how to improve and increase or decrease the secretion of hormones.

1 Introduction

1.1 Reason for writing

  I listened to a class last Tuesday night. The class was about human health and how to delay aging. The lecturer introduced five hormones that can affect human growth, namely "growth hormone", "melatonin", There are five kinds of "thyroid hormone", "adrenaline" and "sex hormone".

  However, due to the relationship between class time and other content to be explained, the lecturer can only give a brief introduction to these five hormones, generally to introduce which parts and organs of the human body produce each hormone. What symptoms or diseases are produced.

  While listening to this class, these hormones reminded me of the knowledge I learned in the biology class in my country and high school. Although I was very interested in biology at the time, because the time was a bit long, some places were a bit blurry, so when I went back after class, I was very interested in biology. , I checked the relevant information on the Internet to supplement and clarify some knowledge.

  The lecturer in this class only introduced the five hormones, but for ordinary people, the most important or most concerned part should be how to promote the secretion of these hormones and improve health. This article serves as a supplement to the application, so that you and your readers know the introduction, secretion, and functions of the five hormones, how to improve, increase or decrease the secretion of hormones, and maintain your body's health.

1.2 Explanation of terms

  The term explanation here will explain the main proper nouns mentioned in the following content. Basically, the introduction and function of each adenoid will be introduced in detail below, so the relevant description will not be made here.

  This paragraph is aimed at the explanation of the vocabulary of the "noun" itself, such as the different sayings of the name, different translations, or the original name of the noun.

  Since if the explanation of the name is explained in the following introduction, it will cause inconvenience in typesetting and difficulty in reading, so the literal explanation of the noun is hereby made here.

  If you already have a general understanding of the proper nouns mentioned in this article, or you only need to understand the introduction, function and improvement of each gland, you can skip this paragraph and read directly to the next paragraph.

  • hormone

  The topic of this article is "Five Hormones", so "hormone" is often mentioned, referring to the translated term "hormone" that we usually hear.

  "Hormone" is "hormone" in English, so it is also translated as "hormone" or "hormone" in Chinese, and it originally means "exciting activity" in Greek.

  • pituitary gland

  When the first hormone "growth hormone" mentioned in this article, it will be mentioned that this hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland, and the Chinese name of this gland has many names, so I will sort it out here.

  "Pituitary gland" is also known as "pituitary gland" in Chinese, "subcerebral gland", "pituitary gland", "pituitary gland" or "pituitary gland", in French and German it is "Hypophyse", in English it is "pituitary" gland".

  • pineal gland

  When the second hormone "melatonin" is mentioned in this article, it will be mentioned that this hormone is secreted by the pineal gland.

  The Chinese name for the pineal gland may alternatively be called "pineal gland", "upper brain body" or "third eye".

  • melatonin

  The second hormone mentioned in this article below is "melatonin". The word "melatonin" is used in this article because it is often called by this word in life. The Chinese translation can be "Melatonin" , English is "Melatonin".

  • sex hormone

  The last hormone mentioned in this article is "sex hormones", but its official usage is "sex steroids".

  The term "sex hormone" is a synonym for "sex steroid". Because the word "sex hormone" is commonly used in life, the English name is "sexhormone", so this article uses the word "sex hormone", and the other Chinese name of the word is "sex steroid" ", English is "Sex steroid".

  • other nouns

  In addition to the above-mentioned nouns that may have multiple names and different translations, the remaining proper nouns only briefly list the original English names. For the detailed introduction of the words, please browse below.

  The first hormone mentioned in this article is "growth hormone", which is "growth hormone" in English, or "HGH" for short; the third is "thyroxine", which is "thyroid_hormones" in English; the fourth is "adrenaline" , English is "Epinephrine" or "Adrenaline".

2 Discussion and learning

human endocrine glands
human endocrine glands


  In order for all parts of the human body to be able to move normally, and to coordinate and cooperate, they must rely on the secretions secreted by the nervous system and endocrine glands—"hormones". Only a very small dose is needed, and hormones can change the metabolism of cells , and this article will introduce the five major hormones that can affect human growth.

  This article is mainly to let readers understand the five hormones that control human growth in a simple and easy-to-understand way, so I will try to explain and describe these five hormones in simple and easy-to-understand terms: "growth hormone", "melatonin" , "Thyroxine", "Adrenaline" and "Sex Hormone", and introduce the "Introduction", "Secretion", "Function" and "Increase and decrease and improvement" of each hormone, so that readers can easily understand these five hormones Effects and effects on the human body.

2.1 Growth hormone

2.1.1 Introduction of Growth Hormone

  "growth hormone"As the name implies, it is a hormone that helps the body grow and grow, but sometimes people mistakenly think that only children will have growth hormone. In fact, the human body will secrete growth hormone at all stages, but as the age increases and aging, the secretion of growth hormone will increase. come less and less.

2.1.2 Growth hormone secretion

location of pituitary gland
location of pituitary gland


  Growth hormone is mainly secreted by the pituitary gland (or pituitary gland, hypothyroid gland, pituitary gland, pituitary gland or pituitary gland) located in the center of the bottom of the brain, but the pituitary gland not only secretes growth hormone, Secretion of other adenoids, only growth hormone is described here.

  Growth hormone is secreted after sleep, and the secretion time is about three hours after falling asleep. The human body will enter the "rapid eye movement period" within 30 minutes after falling asleep, and the growth hormone is secreted the most at this time .

  The main peak of growth hormone secretion is about thirteen to nineteen years old, but after this stage, the secretion will slowly decrease.

  If the secretion of growth hormone is insufficient when the human body is young, it will cause the human body to not grow normally, which is called "dwarfism"; if it is secreted too much during the developmental period, the body will grow too fast, resulting in "giantism"; and If it is secreted too much in adulthood, it is easy to make the extremities (such as facial bones, jaws, fingertips, nose, earlobes, etc.) Long bone disease", insufficient secretion will gradually lead to weight loss.

2.1.3 The function of growth hormone

  The main function of growth hormone is to affect the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, etc., and the action is located in bones and muscles, that is, to control the growth of bones and muscles to promote the growth of the human body.

  Although the growth hormone secreted by adults is less than that of teenagers, the secretion will gradually decrease with age, but the amount secreted by adults is necessary to keep the skin young and maintain the health of the body.

  In addition to being related to the growth of bones and muscles, growth hormone is also related to the body's ability to repair and regenerate various tissues. The skin cells damaged by ultraviolet radiation are also repaired by growth hormone, and the speed of aging is delayed.

  In addition to the above-mentioned effects, the secretion of growth hormone can also prevent muscle atrophy and loss with age, promote metabolism, and maintain a younger state.

2.1.4 Increase, decrease and improvement of growth hormone

  After understanding what growth hormone is, I believe everyone will be able to promote the secretion of growth hormone. The most important way is to start with sleep and diet.

  As mentioned above, growth hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland in the brain during sleep at night, so normal sleep time is required to promote the secretion of growth hormone. What is normal sleep? Just don't sleep lightly, get comfortable, stable and sufficient sleep, and have a regular sleep time, and stay up less late.

  As for the diet, you can take more high-quality protein foods, or foods rich in arginine, while the plant-based protein is mostly stone fruits and beans, while the animal protein is seafood such as shrimp and fish, or Mainly chicken breast and pork.

2.2 Melatonin

2.2.1 Introduction of Melatonin

  Human melatonin is mainly secreted by the pineal gland cells of the pineal gland. In simple terms, melatonin is to tell our body that it is night, and the body will feel tired and sleepy, so the main function is to regulate the biological clock and help fall asleep.

2.2.2 Secretion of melatonin

The location of the pineal gland
The location of the pineal gland


  After turning off the light when going to sleep at night, the retina of the eye can sense the dimming of the ambient light, and send the signal to the pineal gland through the light and dark signal, and the pineal gland will secrete melatonin in the dark.

  During the day, people's melatonin will be suppressed by light, and it will flow into the blood at night. Unless we are always under light or blue light, the release of melatonin may be inhibited, and we will always feel awake.

  Melatonin is secreted the most in the middle part of the night, while the latter part is less secreted, and the amount of secretion has been reduced until dawn. However, compared with ancient people, modern people spend less time in darkness because of the electric lights at night, and the shorter time of light at night may reduce melatonin.

  Melatonin secretion will gradually decrease with age and aging, so if aging causes insomnia, you can take oral melatonin.

2.2.3 The function of melatonin

  The role and function of melatonin are mainly divided into two parts, namely: (1) regulation of biological clock; (2) health support function.

  The main function of melatonin is to regulate the biological clock, so it can help to fall asleep, maintain sleep, treat sleep disorders, and solve jet lag problems.

  Melatonin will help humans fall asleep in two ways: (1) it will extensively suppress the areas of the brain involved in "waking up", and may also lower body temperature; (2) it will regulate, that is, set the body's biological clock, and if it is taken in the afternoon, it will turn black hormones, you will feel that the time is already very late, and you will feel sleepy.

  In addition, in terms of health, melatonin helps the immune system, prevents cancer, and fights against free radicals to damage cells.

2.2.4 Increase, decrease and improvement of melatonin

  The secretion of melatonin is mainly when there is no light at night, the photosensitive function of the retina will notify the pineal gland that the current environment is dark, and the pineal gland will secrete melatonin, so try to turn off all light sources when sleeping at night , and don't stay up late and cause the night time to be too short.

  Some plants (such as rice) can also produce melatonin itself, and the human body will absorb it after eating these foods and dissolve it into the melatonin in the body.

  Melatonin can be obtained by oral administration, spray or transdermal patch, but melatonin is not freely available. Although it is an over-the-counter drug in the United States and Canada, and a health food in China, it is not yet available in Taiwan. It is still a banned drug without a license, and it is illegal to sell it if there is an operator.

2.3 Thyroxine

2.3.1 Introduction of Thyroxine

  The thyroid gland is located in the anterior base third of the neck, on both sides of the trachea. Thyroid hormones can widely act on various cells, activate the expression of various genes, and enhance the physiological functions of various systems throughout the body, mainly promoting metabolism, growth and development, nervous system, circulatory system, and digestive system.

2.3.2 Thyroxine secretion

location of the thyroid
location of the thyroid


  Thyroid hormone is a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland, which is regulated and affected by the levels of thyroid hormones in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and plasma, and maintains the dynamic balance of plasma hormone levels.

  The thyroid also has a function of self-regulation, that is, the intake of iodide will regulate the function of the thyroid, so if the thyroid is deficient in iodine, it will regulate itself.

2.3.3 The function of thyroxine

  Thyroid hormones can widely act on various cells, activate the expression of various genes, and enhance the physiological functions of various systems throughout the body. They can mainly play a role in metabolism, growth and development, nervous system, circulatory system, and digestive system.

  In terms of metabolism, it can promote the maturation of nerves, increase sensitivity to some hormones, increase heat production and basal metabolic rate, promote Tang metabolism (absorption, production, utilization, etc.), synthesize protein, and promote fat utilization.

  In terms of growth and development, it affects normal development and cell differentiation, controls the metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, etc., stimulates the metabolism of vitamins, and maintains growth and development, especially the central nervous system and bones.

  In addition to the above-mentioned functions, thyroid hormones also affect the nervous system (such as stimulating appetite), the circulatory system (such as relaxing the peripheral arteries), and the digestive system (such as promoting the secretion of digestive juice, gastrointestinal peristalsis, etc.) and other functions.

2.3.4 Increase, decrease and improvement of thyroxine

  Iodine in food is the main component of thyroid hormone. When it is deficient, it will reduce the synthesis of thyroid hormone and cause thyroid swelling. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, there were already records about thyroid disease in China. In the Jin Dynasty, it was known that seaweed could be used to treat this disease.

  In hyperthyroidism, the increase in basal metabolism will lead to strong endocrine, resulting in some physiological characteristics, such as headache, nervousness, rapid heartbeat and breathing, weight loss, insomnia, trembling hands, sweating, heat intolerance, fatigue, protruding eyes, Indigestion, diarrhea and other problems mean that it is necessary to reduce the intake of iodine, the main substance for the synthesis of thyroxine.

2.4 Adrenaline

2.4.1 Introduction of Adrenaline

  Adrenaline is a hormone secreted above the two kidneys. It will be secreted when people encounter some stimulating situations, and it will allow the human body to gain powerful strength instantly and respond more quickly to solve unexpected situations.

2.4.2 Adrenaline secretion

location of the adrenal glands
The location of the adrenal glands.


Hormone action: quickly understand the five important hormones that affect human growth and health
Hormone action: Quickly understand five important hormones that affect human growth and health.


  Adrenaline is the main hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla (that is, the place above the two kidneys). It will be secreted when people encounter some stimulating situations (such as excitement, fear, tension, danger, emergency, etc.), which will make people People's breathing speeds up (capable of taking in a lot of oxygen), heartbeat speeds up, blood flow speeds up, pupils dilate, allowing the body to gain more capacity for activities and speeding up reactions.

2.4.3 The function of epinephrine

  The main function of adrenaline is to enable people to exert greater strength than usual when encountering danger, and to avoid danger. In addition, it also helps some hearts, blood vessels, and bronchi, and improves metabolism.

  Adrenaline will increase the contractility of the heart, dilate blood vessels in the heart, liver, and bones, and constrict blood vessels in the skin and mucous membranes. It is a must-have for saving desperate humans or animals.

  Adrenaline can constrict blood vessels of the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs, and cause coronary arteries and skeletal muscle blood vessels to dilate and improve blood supply to the heart. It relieves bronchial smooth muscle spasm, and can be used to relieve symptoms such as weak heartbeat, blood pressure drop, and dyspnea.

  In addition to the above functions, adrenaline can also improve functional metabolism and maintain the necessary conditions for human life activities.

2.4.4 Increase, decrease and improvement of adrenaline

  Adrenaline is produced in natural situations, such as sports, etc., or some emotional reactions, but most of them are secreted more often in the state of "fear", mainly to cope with emergencies, but watching horror movies It may also be secreted when there is emotional stress; adrenaline may also be produced under emotional stress and increase memory, which is also the function of the human body to ensure memory.

  Although adrenaline can be obtained by external force, it is usually used for medical purposes, including: cardiac arrest, allergic reactions and the use of its vasoconstriction function to prevent superficial bleeding, treatment of asthma, etc. However, there are often some side effects and adverse reactions obtained by external force, including palpitations, tachycardia, irregular heartbeat, anxiety, panic attacks, headache, tremor, high blood pressure and acute pulmonary edema.

2.5 Sex hormones

2.5.1 Introduction to Sex Hormones

  "Sex hormones" are steroid hormones synthesized by human gonads, placenta, adrenal cortex net bag and other tissues. The chemical essence is lipid, which can promote the maturation of sexual organs, the development of secondary sexual characteristics and the maintenance of sexual function.

2.5.2 Secretion of sex hormones

  Both men and women secrete male and female hormones. However, male testicles mainly secrete testosterone-based androgen, while female ovaries mainly secrete two hormones—estrogen and progesterone, but also secrete a small amount of testosterone during ovulation.

2.5.3 Functions of sex hormones

  Promote the development and maturation of reproductive organs, reproductive functions, and related secretion and regulation, such as a series of reproductive processes such as egg production, ovulation, spermatogenesis, fertilization, implantation, pregnancy and lactation.

2.5.4 Increase, decrease and improvement of sex hormones

  The main reason for the imbalance of sex hormone secretion is due to various reasons such as emotion, stress, eating habits, disease, and medication. If there is too much of a certain sex hormone in the body, it may lead to imbalance of sex hormone secretion.

  If the sex hormone is out of balance, you can supplement which sex hormone is missing. Hyperfunction caused by excessive secretion of sex hormones should be suppressed, reduced, comprehensively adjusted and treated, and treated and improved by supplementing sex hormones, diet regulation, exercise regulation, and rational drug use.

3 Discussion

  • Listening to the content of the original class is only to introduce the hormones that can affect the "growth" of the human body, so only the hormones that have a significant impact on "growth" are introduced. Therefore, in addition to the above-mentioned five glands, the human body also has other glands, such as insulin and so on.
  • The five hormones mentioned above and the organs that produce them are not one-to-one.
    • Glandrine-secreting organs do not necessarily produce only one adenoid. For example, the pituitary gland does not only secrete growth hormone. Different parts of the pituitary gland produce different hormones: (1) The "anterior lobe of the pituitary gland" produces: growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone. (2) The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland produces: oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone, etc.
    • Adrenaline does not necessarily have to be secreted by only one endocrine organ to become a glandular hormone. For example, sex hormones are steroid hormones secreted and synthesized by different organs (gonads, placenta, adrenal cortical zona reticularis, etc.).
  • The hormones mentioned above are only roughly divided into five hormones that have a major impact on growth, and some hormones can be further subdivided: Sex hormones: (1) male sex hormones are male hormones; (2) female sex hormones are female hormones .
  • The five most important hormones that affect human growth are introduced above. No matter which hormone can cause or produce new physiological activities, because hormones only play the role of notification, conveying information about certain physiological processes, and affecting physiological effects. "Speed ​​up" or "Slow down".
  • Hormone does not necessarily mean that the more the better, it depends on the needs of the human body at the time. For example, too much growth hormone will cause muscle bloat, and too little will cause muscle atrophy.
  • Most hormones can be synthesized in the body, unless there is a lack of specific hormones or other necessity (such as allergic reactions and the use of its vasoconstriction function to prevent superficial bleeding, etc.), it is not necessary to specifically obtain hormones or hormones from the body, too much may cause Cause side effects (possibly palpitations, tachycardia, irregular heartbeat, anxiety, panic attacks, headache, tremors, high blood pressure and acute pulmonary edema, etc.).

4 Conclusions and impressions

  After listening to the class, the five hormones that affect growth are immediately imprinted in my mind, because I have learned them in national and high schools, but how many impressions are left in my head, or whether the lecturer’s lectures are complete? , These are all things that you can check online after class. During the query, it can be found that there are many names that are different from what I have learned and heard in class (for example, the more commonly heard "sex hormone" is actually a more appropriate use of "sex steroids"), and updated health medical knowledge.

  The five most important hormones affecting human growth are: (1) growth hormone secreted by the pituitary gland and controlling functions such as growth and development; (2) growth hormone secreted by the pineal gland and regulating biological clocks and other functions. Melanin; (3) thyroxine secreted by the thyroid gland and controlling metabolism, nerves and other functions; (4) adrenaline secreted by the adrenal gland and providing the power to deal with crises; (5) secreted by the gonads and affecting sexual function Sex hormones with functions such as maturation.

  Knowing which organs of the body secrete those hormones, and which activities of the body are affected (growth, metabolism, etc.), then you can know which conditions in the body may be the problem, and do some treatment or improvement, To reduce the occurrence of endocrine disorders, and can keep the body in the best condition at any time, delay aging, and can also become younger and healthier.

  No matter what methods are used to increase or decrease hormones, to make the body grow healthier, the most important thing is to have regular work and rest and normal life. For example, growth hormone and melatonin are usually released at night. If there is no regular work and rest, often staying up late, then in the case of being unable to fall asleep, of course, hormones cannot be secreted normally, which may cause endocrine disorders, symptoms or diseases.


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update record

  1. 2022/05/12, multi-language version added.

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