Hormonal Effects: A quick overview of the five important hormones that affect the health of human growth








Hormonal Effects: A quick overview of the five important hormones that affect the health of human growth

Human health, activities need to be coordinated by the secretions secreted by the nervous system and endocrine glands, and this secretion is “hormones”, maintaining human health is roughly affected by the five major hormones, this article will be in a simple and clear way, for readers to introduce a little which five hormones, and affect the health of the human body, how to improve and increase or decrease the secretion of hormones.

1 Preface

1.1 Reasons for writing

Last Tuesday night, I listened to a class on human health and how to delay aging, and the lecturer introduced five hormones that affect human growth, namely “growth hormone”, “melatonin”, “thyroxine”, “epinephrine” and “sexin”.

However, due to the relationship of class time and other content to explain, the lecturer only has a brief introduction to these five hormones, roughly introducing which part of the human body and organ each hormone is produced by, and what kind of symptoms or diseases will occur if the hormone is insufficient.

And when listening to the class, these hormones reminded me of the knowledge I learned in biology classes in my previous country and high school, although I was very interested in biology at that time, but because the time was a little old, some places were a little vague, so when I went back after class, I looked up relevant information on the Internet to supplement and clarify some knowledge.

The lecturer only introduced the five hormones, but for the average person, the most important or concerned part should be how to promote the secretion of these hormones and improve health, so for the lecturer’s theoretical place, this article as a supplement to the application, let yourself and the reader know the introduction, secretion, function of the five hormones, how to improve and increase the secretion of hormones, and maintain the health of the body.

1.2 Explanation of terms

The explanation of terms here will explain the main proper nouns mentioned below, basically the introduction and function of each adrenaline will be introduced in detail below, so there will be no relevant description here.

This paragraph is an explanation of the vocabulary of the “noun” itself, such as different statements of the name, different translations, or the original name of the noun.

Since the explanation of the name in the following introduction will cause inconvenience in typesetting and difficulty in reading, the term is explained literally in this paragraph.

If you already have a general understanding of the proper nouns mentioned in this article, or only need to understand the introduction, function and improvement of each adrenaline, you can directly skip this paragraph and read directly to the next paragraph.

  • hormone

The theme of this article is “five hormones”, so “hormones” are often mentioned, referring to the translation term “hormones” that we usually do.

The English word for “hormone” is “hormone”, so Chinese also translated as “hormone” or “hormone”, which originally means “excitatory activity” in Greek.

  • Pituitary gland

In the first hormone mentioned in this article, growth hormone, it will be mentioned that the hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland, and the Chinese name of this gland has many names, which will be sorted out here.

The Chinese of “pituitary gland” is also called “pituitary”, “subcerebral gland”, “pituitary gland”, “pituitary gland” or “pituitary gland”, French and German “Hypophyse”, English “pituitary gland”.

  • Pineal gland

In the second hormone melatonin mentioned in this article, it is mentioned that the hormone is secreted by the pineal gland.

The Chinese name of the pineal gland can be additionally called “pineal gland”, “upper body” or “third eye”.

  • Melatonin

The second hormone mentioned in this article below is “melatonin”, and the term “melatonin” is used in this article, because it is often called by this word in life, Chinese the translation name can be “melatonin”, and the English name is “Melatonin”.

  • sex hormone

The last hormone mentioned in this article is “sex hormone”, but its official usage is “sex steroid”.

The term “sex hormone” is synonymous with “sex steroid”, because the word “sex hormone” is commonly used in life, English is “sex hormone”, so this article uses the word “sex hormone”, and the other Chinese name of the word is “sex steroid”, English is “sex steroid”.

  • Other nouns

In addition to the above mentioned nouns may have multiple names, different translations, the remaining proper nouns only briefly list the original English name, for the detailed introduction of the word, please browse below.

The first hormone mentioned in this article is “growth hormone”, English is “growth hormone”, referred to as “HGH”; the third is “thyroxine”, which is “thyroid_hormones” in English; The fourth is “epinephrine,” which means “Epinephrine” or “Adrenaline” in English.

2 Discussion and learning

The main endocrine glands of the human body
The main endocrine glands of the human body


In order for all parts of the human body to be able to function normally, and coordinate and cooperate, it is necessary to rely on the secretions secreted by the nervous system and endocrine glands – “hormones” to act, only a very small dose, hormones can change the metabolism of cells, and this article will introduce the five major hormones that can affect human growth.

This article is mainly in a simple and easy-to-understand way, so that readers can understand the five hormones that control human growth, so we will try to use words to explain and describe these five hormones: growth hormone, melatonin, thyroxine, adrenaline and sex hormones, and introduce the introduction, secretion, function and increase and decrease and improvement of each hormone respectively, so that readers can simply understand the role and impact of these five hormones on the human body.

2.1 Growth hormone

2.1.1 Introduction to growth hormone

Growth hormone” as the name suggests is a hormone that helps the body grow and grow, but sometimes people mistakenly think that only children will have growth hormone, in fact, the human body will secrete growth hormone at all stages, but with age and aging, the secretion of growth hormone will be less and less.

2.1.2 Secretion of growth hormone

Location of the pituitary gland
Location of the pituitary gland


Growth hormone is mainly secreted by the pituitary gland (or pituitary, subcerebral gland, pituitary gland, pituitary gland or pituitary gland) located at the center of the brain, but the pituitary gland secretes other adrenaline in addition to growth hormone, and only growth hormone is described here.

Growth hormone is secreted after sleep, secreted for about three hours after falling asleep, and will enter the “rapid eye movement period” within 30 minutes after the human body falls asleep, and this time of growth hormone is the time when it is secreted the most.

The main peak of growth hormone secretion is about the age of thirteen to nineteen years old, but after this stage it will slowly decrease.

If the secretion of growth hormone is insufficient when the human body is young, it will cause the human body to not grow normally, which is called “dwarfism”; If it is secreted too much during the development period, it will make the body grow too fast, resulting in “gigantism”; If excessive secretion occurs in adulthood, it is easy to make the end (such as facial bones, chin, fingertips, nose, earlobe, etc.) hypertrophied, which will lead to “terminal hypertrophy”, or make the limbs and jawbones form “long bone disease”, and insufficient secretion will gradually emaciate.

2.1.3 The function of growth hormone

The main function of growth hormone is to affect the metabolism of sugars, lipids, proteins, etc., and the action is located in bones and muscles, that is, to control the growth of bones and muscles to promote the growth of the human body.

Although adults secrete less growth hormone than adolescents, it will gradually decrease with age, but the amount of growth hormone secreted by adults is necessary to maintain young skin and maintain physical health.

In addition to the growth of bones and muscles, growth hormone is also related to the body’s ability to repair and regenerate various tissues. Skin cells damaged by ultraviolet radiation are also repaired by growth hormone and slow down aging.

In addition to the above effects, the secretion of growth hormone can also prevent muscle atrophy and loss with age, promote metabolism, and maintain a younger state.

2.1.4 Increase, decrease and improvement of growth hormone

After understanding what growth hormone is, I believe that everyone will know how to promote the secretion of growth hormone, the most important way is to start with sleep and diet.

Growth hormone, as mentioned above, is secreted by the pituitary gland of the brain during night sleep, so normal sleep time must be required to promote the secretion of growth hormone, what is normal sleep? That is, do not sleep lightly, comfortable, stable and sufficient sleep, and have a regular sleep time, stay up less late.

As for diet, you can consume more high-quality protein foods, you can also consume foods rich in arginine, while plant protein is the most stone fruit and legumes, while animal protein is seafood such as shrimp and fish, or chicken breast, pork, etc.

2.2 Melatonin

2.2.1 Introduction to melatonin

Melatonin in humans is mainly secreted by the pineal gland cells of the pineal gland. Melatonin simply tells our body that it is night, and the body will feel tired and want to sleep, so the main function is to adjust the biological clock and help fall asleep.

2.2.2 Melatonin secretion

Location of the pineal gland
Location of the pineal gland


After turning off the light when you want to sleep at night, the retina of the eye can sense that the light of the environment is darkened, and it is transmitted to the pineal gland through the light and dark signal, and the pineal gland will secrete melatonin in the dark.

During the day, melatonin will be suppressed by light, and at night it will flow into the blood, unless it is always under light or blue light, it may inhibit the release of melatonin, and we will always feel awake.

Melatonin is secreted most in the middle of the night and less in the back, reducing the amount until dawn. However, compared with ancient people, modern people have shorter hours in the dark because of the relationship between electric lights at night, and the shorter time of light at night may reduce melatonin.

Melatonin secretion gradually decreases with age and aging, so if insomnia is caused by aging, oral melatonin can be taken.

2.2.3 The function of melatonin

The role function of melatonin is mainly divided into two parts, namely: (1) the regulation of the biological clock; (2) Health support.

The main function of melatonin is to regulate the biological clock, so it can help fall asleep, maintain sleep, treat sleep disorders, and solve jet lag.

Melatonin helps humans fall asleep in two ways: (1) it extensively suppresses areas of the brain involved in wakefulness, and may also be able to lower body temperature; (2) Regulation is to set the body’s biological clock, if you take melatonin in the afternoon, you will feel that the time is late, and there will be a feeling of wanting to sleep.

In addition, melatonin supports the immune system, cancer prevention, and fighting free radical damage to cells in terms of health.

2.2.4 Increase, decrease and improvement of melatonin

The secretion of melatonin is mainly when there is no light at night, the photosensitive function of the retina will inform the pineal gland that the current environment is dark, and the pineal gland will secrete melatonin, so try to turn off all the light sources when sleeping at night, and do not stay up late and cause the night time to be too short.

Some plants (such as rice) themselves produce melatonin, which the body absorbs after eating these foods and dissolves into the body.

Melatonin can be obtained orally, spray or transdermal patches, but melatonin is not available at will, although it is an over-the-counter drug in the United States and Canada, and a health food in China, but it is still a banned drug without a drug certificate in Taiwan, and it is illegal if it is sold by a business.

2.3 Thyroxine

2.3.1 Introduction to thyroxine

The thyroid gland is located in the base of the anterior third of the neck, on either side of the trachea. Thyroid hormones can act on a wide range of cells, activate the expression of a variety of genes, enhance the physiological functions of various systems in the body, and mainly promote metabolism, growth and development, nervous system, circulatory system, digestive system, etc.

2.3.2 Secretion of thyroxine

Location of the thyroid gland
Location of the thyroid gland


Thyroid hormone is a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland, which is regulated and affected by the thyroid hormone levels in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and plasma, and maintains the homeobalance of plasma hormone levels.

The thyroid gland also has a function of self-regulation, that is, the intake of iodide will regulate the function of the thyroid gland, so if the thyroid gland is deficient in iodine, it will do some regulation on itself.

2.3.3 The function of thyroxine

Thyroid hormones can act on a wide range of cells, activate the expression of a variety of genes, enhance the physiological functions of various systems in the whole body, and mainly play a role in metabolism, growth and development, nervous system, circulatory system, digestive system, etc.

In terms of metabolism, it can promote the maturation of nerves, improve sensitivity to some hormones, increase thermogenesis and basal metabolic rate, promote Tang metabolism (absorption, production, utilization, etc.), synthesize protein, and promote fat utilization.

In terms of growth and development, it affects normal development and cell differentiation, controls the metabolism of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, etc., stimulates the metabolism of vitamins, and also maintains growth and development, especially the central nervous system and bones.

In addition to the above functions, thyroid hormones also affect the functions of the nervous system (such as stimulating appetite), circulatory system (such as having a relaxing effect on peripheral arteries), and the digestive system (such as promoting the secretion of digestive juices, gastrointestinal peristalsis, etc.).

2.3.4 Increase, decrease and improvement of thyroxine

Iodine in food is the main component of thyroid hormones, and when deficient, it will cause a decrease in thyroid hormone synthesis, causing swelling of the thyroid gland. In the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, there were already records of thyroid disease in China, and during the Jin Dynasty, it was already known that seaweed could treat this disease.

When hyperthyroidism, the increase in basal metabolism will cause endocrine vigor, resulting in some physiological characteristics, such as headache, nervous tension, rapid heartbeat and breathing, weight loss, insomnia, hand tremors, sweating, heat intolerance, tiredness, bulging eyes, indigestion, diarrhea and other problems, which means that it is necessary to reduce the intake of iodine, the main substance for synthesizing thyroxine.

2.4 Epinephrine

2.4.1 Introduction to epinephrine

Adrenaline is a hormone secreted above the two kidneys, which is secreted because the person encounters some stimuli, and allows the body to instantly gain great strength and react faster to solve unexpected situations.

2.4.2 Secretion of epinephrine

Location of the adrenal glands
Location of the adrenal glands.


Hormonal Effects: A quick overview of the five important hormones that affect the health of human growth
Hormonal Effects: A quick overview of the five important hormones that affect the health of human growth.


Adrenaline is the main hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla (that is, the place above the two kidneys), which will be secreted when people encounter some stimulating conditions (such as excitement, fear, nervousness, danger, emergency, etc.), which will make people’s breathing faster (able to inhale a lot of oxygen), heart beat faster, blood flow faster, pupils dilated, so that the body can get more ability to facilitate activities, and make the response faster.

2.4.3 The function of adrenaline

The main function of adrenaline is to allow people to have greater power than usual to exert and avoid danger when they encounter danger. In addition, it also helps some heart, blood vessels, bronchi, and improves metabolism.

Adrenaline will increase the contractility of the heart, and expand the blood vessels of the heart, liver and muscles and bones, and the blood vessels of the skin and mucous membranes, which is necessary to save humans or animals who are fighting to the death.

Adrenaline can adrenaline the skin, mucous membranes, internal organs of blood vessels to show convergence, and cause coronary arteries and skeletal muscle blood vessels to present vasodilation effect, and improve the blood supply to the heart, is a fast and strong heart medicine, can also relax bronchial smooth muscle and relieve bronchial smooth muscle meridian, and can be used to relieve symptoms such as weak heartbeat, decreased blood pressure, dyspnea, etc.

In addition to the above functions, epinephrine can also improve functional metabolism and maintain the necessary conditions for human life activities.

2.4.4 Increase, decrease and improvement of epinephrine

Adrenaline is produced in natural situations, such as exercise, etc., or some emotional reactions, but most of the “fear” states are more often secreted, mainly to cope with emergencies, but may also be secreted when watching horror movies; Adrenaline can also be produced in situations of emotional stress and increase memory, which is also the role of the body to ensure memory.

Although epinephrine can be obtained by external force, it is usually used for medical purposes, including cardiac arrest, allergic reactions and the use of its vasoconstrictor function to stop superficial bleeding, asthma, etc. However, there are often side effects and adverse effects such as palpitations, tachycardia, arrhythmia, anxiety, panic attacks, headache, tremor, hypertension, and acute pulmonary edema.

2.5 Sex hormones

2.5.1 Introduction to sex hormones

“Sex hormones” are steroidal hormones synthesized by human gonads, placenta, adrenal cortex mesh bags and other tissues, and the chemical essence is lipids, which have the role of promoting the maturation of sexual organs, the development of parasexual characteristics and the function of maintaining sexual functions.

2.5.2 Secretion of sex hormones

Both male and female hormones are secreted. However, male testicles mainly secrete testosterone-based androgens, while women’s ovaries mainly secrete two hormones – estrogen and progesterone, but also secrete a small amount of testosterone during ovulation.

2.5.3 The function of sex hormones

Promote the development and maturation of reproductive organs, reproductive functions, and related secretion and regulation, such as egg-birth, ovulation, spermatogenesis, fertilization, implantation, pregnancy and lactation and a series of reproductive processes.

2.5.4 Increase, decrease and improvement of sex hormones

The main cause of sex hormone secretion disorder is caused by emotions, stress, eating habits, diseases, medication and other reasons, if there is too much sex hormone in the body, it may lead to sex hormone secretion disorders.

If the sex hormones are out of balance, which sex hormones are missing can be replaced. For hyperfunction caused by excessive secretion of sex hormones, it should be treated and improved by inhibition, reduction, comprehensive conditioning and treatment, and through supplementation of sex hormones, dietary regulation, exercise regulation, rational drug use, etc.

3 Discussion

  • In listening to the content of the original class, I only introduced hormones that can affect human growth, so I only introduced hormones that have a significant impact on growth. Therefore, in addition to the above five kinds of adrenaline, the human body has other adrenaline, such as insulin and so on.
  • The five hormones mentioned above and the organs produced are not one-to-one.
    • Organs that secrete adrenaline don’t necessarily produce only one type of adrenaline. For example, the pituitary gland does not only secrete growth hormone, and different parts of the pituitary gland will produce different hormones: (1) the “anterior lobe of the pituitary gland” will produce: growth hormone, luteinizing auxin, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropin, prolactin, melanocytes stimulating hormone, etc.; (2) The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland produces: oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone, etc.
    • Adrenaline does not have to be secreted by just one endocrine organ to become a type of adrenaline. For example, sex hormones are steroidal hormones secreted and synthesized by different organs (gonads, placenta, adrenal cortex reticular bands and other tissues).
  • The hormones mentioned above are only roughly divided into five hormones that have a significant impact on growth, and some hormones can be subdivided: sex hormones: (1) male sex hormones are male sex hormones; (2) Women’s sex hormones are estrogen.
  • In the above introduction of the five most important hormones that affect human growth, no matter which hormone can not cause or produce new physiological activities, because hormones only play the role of notification, transmit some physiological process information, the physiological effect of “acceleration” or “slowing” effect.
  • Hormones do not necessarily mean that more is better, depending on the condition of the human body at that time, for example, too much growth hormone will cause muscle bloat, too little will cause muscle atrophy.
  • Most hormones can be synthesized by the body, and unless there is a lack of specific hormones or other necessary (such as allergic reactions and the use of their vasoconstriction function to stop superficial bleeding, etc.), it is not necessary to obtain too much of the hormone from outside the body, and too much may cause side effects (palpitations, tachycardia, arrhythmia, anxiety, panic attacks, headaches, tremors, high blood pressure, acute pulmonary edema, etc.).

4 Conclusions and reflections

After listening to the class, the five hormones that affect growth are immediately imprinted in the mind, because they have been learned in the country and high school, but how much impression is left in the head, or whether the lecturer in the class is complete, these can be checked carefully on the Internet after class. In the inquiry, you can find that there are many names that are different from what you have learned and heard in class (for example, the more commonly heard “sex hormone” is actually the more appropriate use of “sex steroid”, etc.), and update your health and medical knowledge.

The five most important hormones affecting human growth are, from beginning to end: (1) growth hormone secreted by the pituitary gland and controls the function of wholeness; (2) Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland and regulating the functions of the physiological clock; (3) Thyroxine secreted by the thyroid gland and controls metabolism, nerves and other functions; (4) Adrenaline secreted by the adrenal glands and providing the power to deal with crises; (5) Sex hormones secreted by gonads and affecting sexual maturity and other functions.

Understand which organs of the body secrete those hormones, and affect which activities of the human body (growth, metabolism, etc.), then you can know what conditions in the body may be wrong, and do some treatment or improvement to reduce the occurrence of endocrine disorders, and can keep the body in the best state at any time, delay aging, and can also be younger and healthier.

No matter what methods are used to increase or decrease hormones, and make the body grow healthier, the most important thing is inseparable from regular work and rest and normal life, such as growth hormone and melatonin are usually secreted at night, if there is no regular schedule, often stay up late, then can not sleep in the situation, of course, can not secrete hormones normally, then may cause endocrine disorders, symptoms or diseases.


  1. Collector’s Edition (2004), “Hormones“, Chinese Encyclopedia.
  2. Wikipedia Editor (2016), “Hormones,” Wikipedia.
  3. Sato まきこ (2015), “The Trick to Keep Young “Growth Hormone” After the Age of 30″, Beautiful Ninja.
  4. Ding Qiwen (2014), “Eating the Right Food Can Grow Taller“, Shutian Clinic.
  5. Wikipedia Editor (2016), “Pituitary gland,” Wikipedia.
  6. Wikipedia Editor (2016), “Melatonin,” Wikipedia.
  7. Le Yujia (2016), “Frequent insomnia Is taking melatonin useful?” 〉, World Magazine.
  8. Wikipedia Editor (2016), “Thyroid hormones,” Wikipedia.
  9. Interactive Encyclopedia Editor (2015), “Thyroxine“, Interactive Encyclopedia.
  10. Editor, “Common Thyroid Diseases“, Taiwan Overseas Network.
  11. Du Yuanzhen (2016), “What is Adrenaline and What Does It Do”, Sanjiu Yangshengtang.
  12. Wikipedia Editor (2016), “Adrenaline,” Wikipedia.
  13. Wikipedia Editor (2015), “Sex Steroids,” Wikipedia.
  14. Taiwan Word Editor (2013), “Sex Hormones“, Taiwan Word.
  15. Editor, “Sex hormone secretion disorders“, PCbaby Encyclopedia.

Update History

  1. 2022/05/12, new multilingual version.