How do you say it in Indonesian? Basic Indonesian self-study teaching and study notes

📅 Published: 2020/03/06
📆 Update: 2022/05/17
📝 Author: WillPete
📁 Categories: Other, Languages
🏷️ Tags:,
⌚ Reading: about 96 minutes

  Bahasa Indonesia ( Indonesian , Bahasa Indonesia ) is the official language of Indonesia, about 200 million people can communicate in Bahasa Indonesia. Compared to other languages, Indonesian has very simple grammar rules and is easy for non-native speakers to learn. This article will first let readers understand the concepts of Indonesian, and explain Indonesian characters, pronunciation, grammar, phrases, etc., so that non-native learners and beginners can understand and learn basic Indonesian.


1 Preface: Why learn Indonesian?

  Compared with other popular languages, Indonesian has received less attention from the public, and there are relatively few learning resources such as webpages, books, courses, etc. related to Indonesian, so many people do not understand why they want to learn Indonesian, but in fact Indonesian There is a certain potential, including the development of Indonesia in recent years, as well as Indonesian immigrants and laborers from all over the world. There are also a lot of Indonesians in Taiwan. Compared with other languages, there is less competition, and Indonesian is relatively simple. Language, the following will introduce to the reader why to learn Indonesian and what is the value of learning Indonesian?

1.1 Current situation: a large number of users and a wide range

  In the world, there are about 42.8 million people who use Indonesian as their mother tongue, and about 155 million people use it as a second language, so there are about 200 million people in the world who use Indonesian, and the Indonesian language is used as a second language. The mother-speaking countries and regions are Indonesia (Indonesia) and East Timor, which are the official languages ​​of Indonesia. At the same time, with the dispersion of Indonesian immigrants and domestic helpers working abroad, many people who can speak Indonesian spread to other places, including the Netherlands, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia), Singapore, the United States and Taiwan and so on.

  In Taiwan, according to the statistics of resident aliens in Taiwan by the Immigration Department of the Ministry of the Interior in May 2018, the number of Indonesians in Taiwan is 241,879, while the total population of Taiwan is 23,572,415, so about every hundred people in Taiwan Among them, there will be a person from Indonesia. Therefore, among the foreigners in Taiwan, Indonesians are the most. Although it is not as famous as other popular languages, it is actually one of the foreign languages ​​that are easily accessible to native speakers in Taiwan.

  In addition, Indonesian and Malay have a high degree of similarity, because Indonesian is actually developed from the Malay Riau dialect, so it is one of the Malay language groups, although the two have some phonetic, There are differences in vocabulary and spelling, but the overall communication between the two is not much obstacle. Malay has a native speaker population of 20 to 30 million and is the official language of Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

  Therefore, more than 40 million people use Indonesian as their mother tongue, and more than 150 million people use it as a second language. A total of more than 200 million people use it. If you add the highly common Malay language, there are more than 30 million people. (Malaysia has 13 million native speakers of Malay, 10 million as a second language, 10 million in Sumatra, Indonesia, 1 million in Thailand, and 400,000 in Singapore), then the population could be as high as two There are more than 30 million people, and the number of users is very large. There are Indonesian immigrants and laborers all over the world, and Taiwan is the largest number of foreigners, so there are not a few people who learn Indonesian.

1.2 Linguistic Value: Increased Indonesian Influence, Indonesian Official Language, New Southbound Policy

  Indonesia is a country composed of many large and small islands. There will be about 17,508 islands, of which 6,000 islands are inhabited, so it is known as the "country of a thousand islands", in which there are more than 300 kinds of races. , and more than 500 languages ​​or dialects, so if you want to travel, trade, do business and other activities in Indonesia, it is impossible to learn so many languages ​​at the same time, so it is very important to learn a unified language, and Indonesia is unified The official language is "Indonesian".

  Furthermore, Indonesia has a total population of more than 280 million people and is the fourth most populous country in the world. Although Indonesia is a developing country, its early historical background is similar to that of other parts of South Asia and Southeast Asia. Its industrial structure is backward and The industry is underdeveloped, but since 2007, with the improvement of the banking sector and domestic consumption, the GDP has grown by 6.5% in 2011. There are currently about 6 million workers working abroad in Indonesia, and Indonesia itself has Rich in natural resources, it is the founding country of ASEAN, a member of the G20, the 16th largest economy in the world in 2017, and the country with the largest Muslim population in the world (86.1% of the population believe in Islam).

  In addition, in response to the rise of ASEAN countries and the importance of new immigrants in Southeast Asia and the second generation of bilinguals, Taiwan has actively expanded its economic and market ties with ASEAN, India, Australia, and New Zealand. In 2016, Taiwan established the New Southbound Policy , establish exchange policies such as economy, trade, education and culture, and the target country included in this policy is Indonesia. Therefore, for Taiwan, there will be more opportunities to contact and communicate with Indonesia in the future, and it will inevitably have more talents and resources who need to speak Indonesian.

  To sum up, as many as more than 200 million people can use Indonesian. The number of speakers of a language often affects whether someone is willing to study the language. There is no doubt that the number of speakers of Indonesian is large. In addition, there are many Indonesian immigrants and migrant workers scattered all over the world, so that the spread of Indonesian language is even wider. For activities such as sightseeing or business in Indonesia, learning a unified Indonesian language is more advantageous than learning various local dialects. Although English is the universal language in the world, for local Indonesians, as long as they go to school, they will know Indonesian. , On the contrary, Indonesian is more common than English. Indonesia has developed faster and faster in recent years, and its influence on the world is also increasing. There is a new southbound policy. Knowing more about Indonesian can open more windows, plus Indonesia language for non-native speakers.

1.3 Learning difficulty: simple grammar, easy to learn, low cost and high efficiency

  The ease of learning a language may also affect a person's willingness to continue learning. Compared with other languages, Indonesian is a language with simple grammar, loose structure and easy to learn. Indonesian is a phonetic script, using twenty-six Latin letters (exactly the same as English letters), most of the text and pronunciation are corresponding, there are not as many rules and exceptions as English, so as long as you have learned the basic letters Pronunciation, even if you don’t understand Indonesian, you can roughly know how to pronounce it, so you don’t need phonetic symbols, stress is not important, there is no tonal system, and the grammar is relatively simple, no yin and yang, no tense changes. Therefore, learning Indonesian is relatively simple and easy, and it takes less time to learn a language used by many people (more than 200 million people), which is equivalent to learning Malay at the same time (even if there are some differences, but generally can communicate with each other), it belongs to Learn a language that is inexpensive and cost-effective.

2 Concept Discussion

  The development of human language is often accompanied by factors such as historical context, cultural bearing, and humanistic changes. Therefore, when learning a language, if you can understand the background culture of the language, you will be able to understand the structure, usage, changes or etymology of the language. Have a deeper understanding and experience. Therefore, the following will discuss what the Indonesian language is and where it comes from.

2.1 What is Indonesian?

  Indonesian / Indonesian (Indonesian: Bahasa Indonesia ; English: Indonesian ), referred to as Indonesian / Indonesian/Indonesian, etc., is a standardized Malay language, that is, the Indonesianized Malay language. Nei dialect is also the official language of Indonesia. About 42.8 million people use it as their mother tongue (7% of the Indonesian population, mainly around Jakarta), and 155 million people use it as a second language, so there are more than 200 million people in the world. People speak Indonesian.

  In terms of language classification, "Indonesian" and "Malay" are both "Malay languages" belonging to the "Malay language group" in the "Malayo-Polynesian language family" under the "Austronesian language family". ' in one of the languages. By the way, the languages ​​of Taiwan's aborigines (Taiwan's Austronesian languages) also belong to the Austronesian language family. Those who know Taiwan's aboriginal languages ​​may find some similarities. Below is a detailed hierarchical classification of the two languages ​​"Indonesian" and "Malay", so that readers can understand the relationship between the languages.

  • Austronesian languages
    • Malay-Polynesian language family
      • Core Malayo-Polynesian languages
        • Sunda-Sulawesi group
          • Malay group
            • Sub-Malay group
              • Malay language
                • Malay 
                • Indonesian

2.2 The origin of Indonesian

  As you can see from the above chapters, Indonesian and Malay are very similar, but why are they so similar? This is because the ancestors of these two languages ​​were originally the unofficial lingua franca of Southeast Asia, which was previously used as a common language for trade in the Malacca Strait region. Therefore, people in this area and related areas can easily master the language as long as they study more.

  But in fact, before Indonesia became an independent state, there was no so-called "Indonesian" (Indonesian) language and name. Although there is a place name "Indonesia", it is not a country name, and "Malay" has long been It has been circulated in the Malay Islands, Indonesia and other places for a long time.
  In order to overthrow the independence of the Dutch colonial language, a group of Indonesian nationalist youths issued a "Youth Manifesto" (Sumpah Pemuda) at the "National Youth Congress" (Indonesian Youth Congress) for two days on October 27 and 28, 1928, A declaration that advocates "one country, one nation, one language" (the Indonesian original of "nation" is "bangsa", which is closer to the meaning of "nation"), and makes Indonesian the official official language (national language) of Indonesia . Otherwise, among the more than 6,000 islands inhabited by more than 17,000 islands in Indonesia, there are more than 300 ethnic groups (Javanese, Sunda, Badak, Aceh, etc.), more than 500 language (Javanese, Sundanese, etc.), the entire country will not be able to communicate, communicate, and unify the country and language.

  In fact, the most spoken language in Indonesia at that time was "Javanese" (Javanese accounted for 45% of the population), but it was not chosen as the "national language" of Indonesia, but a simpler one that has been circulating in Malay for centuries The Riau dialect of the archipelago's common language "Malay" is used as the national language (Indonesian is also much simpler than Javanese, which is easy to learn) , and it has been transformed, standardized, Indonesian, and renamed "Indonesian". It was born, and most of the Indonesian language is used in publishing, programming, media, business, administration, education at all levels, etc. in order to popularize the Indonesian language. However, although the official language of mass communication uses Indonesian, in fact, Indonesians still use their own dialects to communicate in private and daily life. Therefore, foreigners who come to Indonesia may hear various accents and dialects (the Indonesian government does not prohibit dialects, so Indonesians maintain their own dialects and customs), but as long as you learn "Indonesian", you can communicate with Indonesians (as long as there are educated Indonesians who can mostly speak Indonesian) without having to learn a very wide variety of dialects.

3 learning methods

  In the previous chapters of this article, it was mentioned that Indonesian is an easy language to learn. Literally speaking, Indonesian is a phonetic script, and letters and pronunciations are highly corresponding, that is, in most cases, a letter basically corresponds to a sound (although there are exceptions, but it is very rare, unlike a letter in English There may be multiple pronunciations), so as long as you learn the pronunciation of each letter, even if you don’t understand Indonesian, you can read it when you see the literal, so Indonesian basically doesn’t use phonetic symbols. Furthermore, the alphabet also uses twenty-six Latin alphabets, which are exactly the same as the English alphabet, so there is no need to learn characters separately. Therefore, compared to other more difficult languages ​​that require learning phonetic symbols or another writing system, the parts of Indonesian script and phonetic symbols have been solved before learning Indonesian.

  In addition, in 1972, former Indonesian President Suharto made a series of official revisions to the Indonesian spelling system and officially promulgated the Indonesian spelling standard (Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan), which is to unify Indonesia's Indonesia Although the new system has been widely used, many people are still used to using the old system to spell their names. The spelling used in this article is the new system, but a comparison table of the old Indonesian language and the new system is listed below for readers who need it.

old indonesian spelling Indonesian new spelling
tj c
dj j
j Y
nj ny
sj sy
ch kh

  As for the part of word order, word order (English: word order) is a grammatical order of words. Any language has subjects, objects and verbs, so there will be problems of word order and grammatical cases. The word order of the most languages ​​in the world is actually "subject + object + verb" (for example: Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Latin, etc., accounting for 45%), while the Chinese and English we are familiar with are " Subject + verb + object", luckily the word order in Indonesian is just the familiar "subject + verb + object", so when learning Indonesian, you can learn and construct sentences quickly, and it is not easy to confuse , but remember that adjectives in Indonesian are postfix modifiers, that is, adjectives are placed after nouns, unlike Chinese, adjectives are placed before nouns, except for these small places to pay attention to, the overall Indonesian language The sequence is relatively familiar to us and easy to learn.

  Finally, regarding the vocabulary, since Indonesia was once colonized by the Netherlands, many Dutch loanwords were printed, which is a phenomenon not found in Malay. Since Dutch is close to English and German, and belongs to the West Germanic branch, in the Dutch loanwords in Indonesian, you will see words similar to English. For example, the Indonesian word for "doctor" is "dokter". Dutch is also "dokter", and English is "doctor". For readers who have learned English, words in similar situations can help us remember such words.

4 learning points

  The above chapters introduce the background knowledge related to Indonesian. This chapter will enter the study of Indonesian. However, since learning a language cannot be taught in just a few words, this article will only sort out and list the most important parts in order to expect It allows readers to achieve the level of learning basic Indonesian, rather than aiming for advanced level. Finally, if you want to speak Indonesian more quickly and directly, or you need to use Indonesian in an emergency, you can go directly to the last part of this chapter, "Phrases", there will be the most commonly used Indonesian-related phrases and sentences.

4.1 Text: Indonesian alphabet

  The language used in Indonesian is very simple. It uses twenty-six letters, which are exactly the same as the English alphabet (Latin alphabet). As long as you know twenty-six letters, you do not need to learn the Indonesian alphabet. But it should be noted that although 26 Latin letters are used like English, most of the pronunciations are different from English pronunciations. Indonesian letters have their own pronunciation, which is arranged as follows.

uppercase letter Lower case letters letter name
A a a
b b be
C c this
D d from
AND and and
F f ef
G g ge
H h he has
I i i
J j is
K k ka
L l the
M m in
N n in
THE The The
P p on
Q q ki
R r is
S s it is
T t te
IN in in
IN in fe
In in we
X x ex
Y Y ye
FROM with move

  As for how to pronounce the Indonesian alphabet actually, please continue to the "Pronunciation" section of the next chapter, which has a complete Indonesian pronunciation content.

4.2 Pronunciation

  The pronunciation of Indonesian is very simple. As long as you learn the vowels and consonants, you can generally read the words when you see them. As for the accent and intonation, it is not very important in Indonesian, and there is no tone, so you can learn it quickly.

4.2.1 Vowels (vowels) Single vowels

  Indonesian has five single vowels: a, e, i, o, u, but six vowels because the letter "e" has two pronunciations: [e], [ə], except for the letter "e" Besides, the other four letters mostly correspond to one pronunciation.

single vowel International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
Phonetic and pronunciation
a a a p a
and and e ㆤ (closed ㄝ) ㄝ (open ㆤ) e ju k
b e rt e mu
i i i n i
The The ɔ ㄛ (closed ㆦ) ㆦ (open ㄛ) o rang poh n
in in u s u


  • One of the pronunciations [e] of the letter "e" will be pronounced as [ɛ] in the last syllable of the closure. Although the pronunciation will change at this time, it does not affect the semantics, so it is regarded as the same phoneme (English: Phoneme , also transliterated ), the pronunciation of the same letter "o" [o] will be pronounced [ɔ] in the last closed syllable, which is also the same phoneme. Since the same one does not affect the semantics, it is okay for beginners to master the difference in a short time. It does not affect communication, but there may be a slight difference in accent, but it should be noted that the [e] of the letter "e" and [ə] These two sounds, because these two vowels are different phonemes in Indonesian. Compound vowels

  Indonesian has three compound vowels: ai, au, and oi, which are respectively pronounced with diphthongs: [aɪ], [au], [oɪ].

compound vowels International Phonetic Alphabet Phonetic and pronunciation example
ai ㄞ (ㄚㄧ) sung ai
to to ㄠ (ㄚㄨ) s or dara
Hi o ㄛ ㄧ sep oi

4.2.2 Consonants (consonants) Monophonic letters

  Indonesian has twenty-one monophonic letters.

monophonic letters
International Phonetic Alphabet

Phonetic and pronunciation

voiceless example

b b ㆠ (voiced "ㄅ") Voiced (voiced consonants) b a b i
c start / start ㄐ / ㄗ Unvoiced (unvoiced consonants) c ignore

d d 1024px Bpmf dd2 - How do you say it in Indonesian? Basic Indonesian self-study teaching and study notes(voiced "ㄉ") Voiced (voiced consonants) d u d uk
f f Unvoiced (unvoiced consonants) maa f
g g ㆣ (voiced "ㄍ") Voiced (voiced consonants) g ado- g ado
h h Unvoiced (unvoiced consonants) h ari
j d͡ʑ / d͡z ㆢ/ㆡ (voiced 「ㄐ」/「ㄗ」) Voiced (voiced consonants) j alan
k k ? Unvoiced (unvoiced consonants) k acang father , ra yat
l l Voiced (voiced consonants) bo l eh
m m Voiced (voiced consonants) m will
n n Voiced (voiced consonants) i n i
p p Unvoiced (unvoiced consonants) p agi tutu p
q k Unvoiced (unvoiced consonants) Quran
r r tongue Voiced (voiced consonants) pa r ki r
s s Unvoiced (unvoiced consonants) s aya
t t ㄉ ˙ Unvoiced (unvoiced consonants) t adi During t
in in ㄪ (voiced "ㄈ") Voiced (voiced consonants) v aluta
in in Voiced (voiced consonants) w angi
x ks ㄎ ㄙ Unvoiced (unvoiced consonants) X-ray
Y j Voiced (voiced consonants) and a
with with 768px Bpmf ss - How do you say it in Indonesian? Basic Indonesian self-study teaching and study notes(voiced "ㄙ")
Voiced (voiced consonants) time time


  • The letter "k" and the letter "q" are both pronounced the same, with the consonant "[k]".
  • The letters q, v, x, z are commonly used in European and Indian loanwords.
  • For people whose native language has no stops, affricates, voiceless (unvoiced consonants) and voiced (voiced consonants) opposites (for example: Chinese), some sounds that are similar in pronunciation in Indonesian are easy to confuse, but the difference is only in the unvoiced sounds. The throat does not vibrate when pronounced while voiced sounds require vibration. Listed below are several groups of letters that are easily confused, the former being unvoiced and the latter voiced.
    • p vs b
    • t vs d
    • k vs g
    • c vs j
  • Indonesian "p, t, k" at the end of the sound is equivalent to the entering sound of other Chinese groups (eg Hokkien). But the difference is that "k" in Indonesian is not equal to "k" in Hokkien but "h", that is, "[ ʔ ]" in Indonesian is pronounced with the letter "k" instead of "h". Compound consonants

  Indonesian has four compound consonants: kh, ng, ny, and sy, which are respectively pronounced with consonants: [x], [ŋ], [ɲ], [ʃ]. Although Indonesian compound consonants consist of two letters, only one consonant is pronounced.

compound consonants International Phonetic Alphabet
Phonetic and pronunciation
kh x kh ir
ng ŋ ng no, ua ng
ny s ta ny a
sy ɕ ʃ 800px Bpmf sy - How do you say it in Indonesian? Basic Indonesian self-study teaching and study notes and arat and measure


  • The compound consonants "ny" and "sy" appear only in Arabic words in Indonesian.
  • The Indonesian letters "kh" and "h" are a bit similar but not pronounced the same. The compound consonant "kh" is pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative "[x]" (for the laryngeal wall), and the airflow will produce strong friction when the air is in the position of the laryngeal wall, which is more often found in Arabic loan words (such as : khas); while the monophonic letter "h" is pronounced as a voiceless glottal fricative (or voiceless glottal transitional, voiceless throat fricative) "[h]", with less friction and a more relaxed pronunciation.
  • "sy" will be pronounced differently depending on the vowel behind it. When followed by the vowel "a", the pronunciation of "[ɕ]" (phonetic is "ㄒ"), so "sya" will sound like the phonetic "ㄒㄧㄚ" sound; if it is followed by the vowel "u" ” is pronounced “[ʃ]”, so “syu” sounds like the phonetic “ㄒㄩㄨ” sound.

4.2.3 Stress and intonation

  In Indonesian pronunciation, there is no tone, and stress and intonation are not very important , because Indonesian does not change the meaning of words and sentences because of the severity and strength of pronunciation. But usually two-syllable and three-syllable word stress will fall on the penultimate syllable, for example: "I" in Indonesian is "saya", and the stress usually falls on "sa". Compared with other languages, the intonation of Indonesian is relatively flat, with little ups and downs, only the intonation rises at the end of interrogative sentences.

  However, Indonesian may have different accent positions according to different people, different accents and different habits, but it will not affect the understanding of meaning and semantics at all, so even if the accent when pronouncing does not follow the above rules, there is no big problem. .

4.3 Vocabulary

  (The vocabulary is being sorted, or readers can search for Indonesian vocabulary in the online dictionary by themselves)

4.4 Grammar/Syntax

  At the beginning of learning a language, you need to learn basic pronunciation. After you know how to pronounce it, you need to learn how to say a whole sentence to express your meaning. You need to learn grammar/grammar. It was mentioned in the previous chapter that Indonesian is a relatively simple grammar. The language and structure are not as complicated and rigorous as other European languages ​​(Indonesian has no yin and masculine, tense changes). The following will introduce the grammar of Indonesian in detail. I believe readers will know how much the grammar of Indonesian is after reading it. Simple.

4.4.1 Word Patterns

  Before understanding the structure of Indonesian sentences, it is helpful to understand the nature and changes of various parts of speech, which will help to understand the structure and meaning of the whole sentence. Fortunately, the changes of various parts of speech in Indonesian are very simple, and nouns do not have yin and yang, Plural numbers only need to repeat a single word, and there is no tense change when moving. Let's explain various parts of speech below. Noun

  Indonesian nouns are very simple, and they do not need to be divided into yin and masculine like many European languages ​​(for example: French, Spanish, etc.), or even yin, yang, and neutral (for example: German, Russian), There are also no case changes (for example: the nominative, accusative, and possessive cases of English first-person pronouns are I, me, and my respectively), that is, Indonesian nouns have almost no morphological changes, and plural changes only need to be the same. A word can be repeated twice (e.g. "book" is "buku" in Indonesian, and the plural is "buku-buku"). So overall, Indonesian nouns are very easy to learn and remember. Complex numbers

  Plural changes in different languages ​​vary in complexity. For example, in English, most of the plurals add "s", "es", "ves" at the end of the word, but there are also many irregular changes (for example: foot → feet, man → men, woman → women, etc.), there are is singular and plural (eg deer → dee, sheep → sheepr, etc.).

  In the Chinese language we are familiar with, most nouns do not have plural forms, and only adjectives such as "many", "several", "large amount", "small amount" and so on are added in front of the noun to indicate the noun. number, but after the "personal pronoun" will add "we", "some" and other words to represent the plural of the noun (for example: "we", "you", "them", "these", "those" etc.), but without the word "men" if it is not a "personal pronoun" (eg "two students" instead of "two students").

  However, in Indonesian, the inflection of plural nouns is very simple. There is no need to add plural morphemes (s, es, ves…) like nouns in English, and there is no need to add adjectives in front or “we” in the back like in Chinese. ” or “some” and other words to judge the singular and plural, only need to repeat the noun twice and connect with a hyphen in the middle to form the plural form , which is very simple . For example: "Book" in Indonesian is "buku", and the plural form is " buku- buku", which also means "many books", "some books", "pile of books", etc. It can also be abbreviated as "buku 2 " " .

  In addition, quantifiers can also be used to express the number of nouns, and they can also form plural forms. For example, the Indonesian word for "two people" is "dua roang", "dua" means "two", and "roang" means "people". Pronouns
pronoun classification
Odd number plural
Indonesian Chinese Indonesian Chinese
personal pronoun

First person

me(敬語) I kita (contains obedient objects) us
me kami (excluding obedient objects)
second person

Anda (honour) you you all you
you you
brother ... you brothers Gentlemen
miss ……Miss sisters ladies
bapak/pak (respectful title) gentlemen bapak-bapak (title) Gentlemen
ibu / bu (honorific) Miss ibu-ibu (honorific) Ladies
third person

he / she he she them they/them
beliau (title)
demonstrative pronoun

refer to people near term this this, this, this... this These, this group...
far that That, that, that... that Those, that group...
refers to the premises

near term here here  
far very There
indefinite situ there, somewhere
Interrogative pronoun

thing what what  
figure who who/who
state how how/how/how
place where where/where/where
time when when/when


  • Demonstrative pronouns (designated pronouns) in Indonesian are not singular or plural (eg: this, these are both "ini"), and they can also be used for things or people (eg: this, this are both "ini").
  • The Indonesian language will cite the local dialect of Indonesia and the Chinese dialect of the Chinese.
    • Minnan Language
      • Me: Gua / Gue
      • You: Loe/Lu
    • The dialect of Jakarta and its suburbs (the main way of calling the island of Java)
      • Big Brother: Mas (originally means "older brother", and can be used as a collective name for "older brother" or "sir" when addressing local men.)
      • Miss: Mbak (originally means "sister", and can be used as a collective name for "sister" or "miss" when addressing local women.) Quantifiers

  Indonesian numbers (numerical words) are very simple and regular. As long as you understand the basic ten numbers from 0 to 9, you can understand ordinal numbers. Cardinal numbers

  The number rules in Indonesian are very simple. You only need to be familiar with the ten numbers from 0 to 9, and you can find all the combinations of numbers regularly.

  • One-digit numerals (two to nine) plus "belas" are twelve to nineteen of ten-digit numerals .
  • One-digit numerals (two to nine) plus "puluh" are twenty, thirty, forty... ninety of ten-digit numerals .
  • One-digit numerals (two to nine) plus "ratus" are two hundred, three hundred , ... nine hundred of a hundred-digit numeral .
  • One-digit numerals (two to nine) plus "ribu" are two thousand, three thousand ... nine thousand of thousand numerals .
  • One-digit numbers (two to nine) plus "juta" are two million, three million , ... nine million of hundreds .
  • Irregular numerals are only ten, eleven, one hundred, one thousand , and the others follow the rules.
Numerical value Indonesian Chinese
0 nol / kosong / koos zero
1 one one
2 two two
3 three three
4 four Four
5 five five
6 more six
7 seven seven
8 eight / eight Eight
9 nine / nine Nine
illustrate The most basic ten numbers (0~9).
Numerical value Indonesian Chinese
10 ten ten
11 eleven eleven
12 twelve twelve
13 thirteen Thirteen
14 fourteen fourteen
15 fifteen fifteen
16 sixteen sixteen
17 seventeen seventeen
18 eighteen eighteen
19 nineteen nineteen
illustrate As long as the single digit "2" to "9" is added with the word "belas" representing "10", it can represent the number of "a dozen", but pay attention to the two exceptions of "10" and "11".
Numerical value Indonesian Chinese
20 twenty twenty
twenty one twenty one twenty one
30 thirty thirty
40 forty forty
99 ninety nine Ninety-nine
illustrate Just add the word "puluh", which represents the ten-digit unit, after the one-digit number "2" to "9" to represent the number of "tens", but does not include "11".
Numerical value Indonesian Chinese
100 one hundred one hundred
200 two hundred two hundred
201 two hundred one two hundred and one
373 three hundred and seventy three 373
985 nine hundred and eighty five Nine hundred and eighty-five
illustrate As long as the single word "ratus", which represents the hundreds digit unit, is added after the one digit "2" to "9", it can represent the number of "hundreds", but does not include "100".
Numerical value Indonesian Chinese
1000 a thousand one thousand
2000 two thousand two thousand
illustrate As long as the single digit "2" to "9" is followed by the word "ribu", which represents the unit of thousands, it can represent the number of "thousands", but does not include "1000".
Numerical value Indonesian Chinese
10000 ten thousand ten thousand
20000 twenty thousand twenty thousand
100000 one hundred thousand one hundred thousand
230000 two hundred and thirty thousand 230,000
illustrate For numbers above 10,000, add tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. in front of the thousands digit, and the formula is "10 x 1000 = 10000".
Numerical value Indonesian Chinese
1000000 one million one million
2000000 two million two million
6800000 six million eight hundred thousand 6.8 million
10000000 ten million Ten million
20000000 twenty million twenty million
68000000 sixty eight million sixty-eight million
100000000 one hundred million 100 million
200000000 two hundred million 200 million
illustrate The word representing the million-digit unit is "ribu".


  • The numerical examples in the above table are without numerical quantiles because Indonesian and Chinese have different numerical quantiles. If you want to add a quantile symbol, it should be noted that the symbols used in different languages ​​or regions may be different. In Chinese and English regions, the usual thousand symbol is "," and the decimal point is ".", but in Indonesian The thousand symbol is "." and the decimal point is "," (for example: "1,234,567.89" in Chinese numbers is "1,234,567.89" in Chinese and English , but in Indonesia, parts of Europe use "1 . 234 . 567,89", and other parts of Europe have other representations).
  • There are two Indonesian languages ​​for "eight", "delapan" and "lapan". The formal and written language is "delapan". Because Indonesians often simplify words and sentences when talking, they also simplify "eight" to "lapan" orally. ", but only in spoken language, not in formal written language. Ordinal numbers

  Ordinal numbers in Indonesian are very simple, just add "ke" in front of the number (cardinal number) to form the ordinal number in the number. For example, adding "ke" in front of the Indonesian word "dua" in "two" forms the word "kedua" which means "second".

Arabic numerals Indonesian Chinese
1 first / first First
2 second second
3 third third
4 fourth fourth
5 fifth fifth
ke th... Quantifiers

Quantifier formula explain Indonesian example Chinese meaning
number + quantifier + noun Any quantity available 1cupcup coffeecoffee a cup of coffee
2 cups of coffee two cups of coffee
[se + quantifier] + noun Singular only cupa cupcoffee a cup of coffee
a piecepiece biscuitsbiscuit a cookie Verbs Basic word order of verbs

  The word order of Indonesian verbs in sentences is the same as in English and Chinese, after the subject. Passive

  The passive form of Indonesian is very simple, just add "di" in front of the verb to form the passive form.

Indonesian Verb Passive Formula example
original form of verb verb passive
Indonesian Chinese Indonesian example Chinese meaning
[di + verb] open Open opened was opened
answer answer answered get an answer
inject injection injected inject
asked ask questions asked be asked Adjectives Basic word order of adjectives

  In Chinese, most modifiers (including adjectives, possessives, etc.) are placed in front of the nouns to be modified (except for some usages in some Chinese dialects), such as "lots of books", "my books", etc.; In English, it depends on the length and type of the modifier to determine whether it should be placed before or after the noun. For example, as long as the modifier is a single adjective or a short modification, it is placed in the front, such as "many books", "my books", but If the modified voice is long or the entire clause, it needs to be modified with postposition. For example, when translated into English, "He likes the book someone gave him." in Chinese, "someone gave him." gave him" is used to modify "book".

  However, in Indonesian, modifiers (adjectives, possessives, etc.) are placed after the noun to be modified. In the example of "My Book" above, Indonesian is "buku saya", which means "buku" For "book", "saya" means "me", but "saya" after the noun becomes "my", used to modify the "buku" of the noun, "buku saya" is "my book" mean. Word order of adjectives in sentences
word order of adjectives in sentences Indonesian Chinese
word order of adjectives in affirmative sentences subject + adjective He cnatik. She is very pretty.
Word order when adverbs modify adjectives Subject + Adjective + Adverb She is so beautiful. She is very beautiful.
Subject + Adverb + Adjective She is so beautiful.
Word Order of Adjectives in Negative Sentences subject + tidak + adjective She is not beautiful. She is not pretty. /She doesn't look good.
word order of adjectives in interrogative sentences Apa + subject + adjective Is she beautiful? Is she pretty? Comparatives
adjective comparative formula explain example
Indonesian example Chinese meaning
moremore...+ adjective +ofcompared to...+ object to compare More than...‥ bigger than that bigger than that
[se + adjective] just like... that big as big as that Superlative
adjective superlative formula example
Indonesian example Chinese meaning
mostmost……+ adjective mostgoodOK the best Adverbs Adverb order
  • Adverb + Verb / Subject / Adjective Adverbs of degree
Degree adverb formula example
Indonesian example Chinese meaning
Adverb of Degree + Adjective a littlea little bit bigbig slightly bigger
Degree Compound + Verb a littlehungryhungry a little hungry Adverbs of frequency
  • Subject + Adverb of Frequency + General Verb
approximate frequency Indonesian Adverbs of Frequency English control Chinese meaning
100% always always always
75% often often Frequent
50% sometimes sometimes sometimes
25% rarely seldom rare
0% never never never Conjunctions
connective classification Indonesian Chinese
tied and and, and
choose or or
turning point but (but) but
cause and effect because because
so so
Assumption if if, in case

4.4.2 Sentence patterns Declarative sentences Affirmative sentences
Affirmative sentence formula of declarative sentence
Indonesian example English control Chinese meaning
subject + verb + target language I amI eateat rotibread. I eat bread. I eat bread.
Subject + Verb + Complement subject + (isYes) + noun Diahe she isYes friendfriend memine. He / She is my friend. He/she is my friend.
He is my friend.


  • The Indonesian "adalah" is equivalent to the English "be verb", which means "is..." in Chinese. However, the difference between Indonesian "adalah" and English "be verb" is that Indonesian often omits the word, so the sentence pattern often presents the state of "subject + noun", especially in spoken dialogue, it is almost always omitted. Negative sentences

  Negative sentences only need to add negative words to affirmative sentences. There are roughly two negative words, namely "bukan" and "tidak". "Bukan" is used to negate nouns or pronouns, while "tidak" is used to negate verbs or adjectives.

Negative words of negative sentences

Indonesian example English control Chinese meaning
tidak + verb/adjective I amI noDo not eateat rotibread. I don't eat bread. I don't eat bread.
bukan + noun/pronoun Diahe she notDo not friendfriend memine. He / She is not my friend. He/she is not my friend. Interrogative sentences Interrogative sentences using interrogative words

  Indonesian interrogative sentences are also very simple, as long as you add a question word before or after the sentence, and add a question mark at the end of the sentence, it is an interrogative sentence. Interrogative words can refer to the interrogative pronouns (such as:whatwhat,whoWho,howhow,wherewhere,whenwhenetc.) part.

Sentence formula of interrogative words example
Indonesian example English control Chinese meaning

question word + subject

subject + question word

ask Whatwhat thisthis? What is this? what is this?
What is this?
answer This is . This is ○○. This is ○○.
question word + subject + verb + target language ask Whenwhen youyou/you eateat ricerice? When did you eat? When did you/you eat?
answer MeI newnew justOnlyJust noweat. I just ate. Just ate.
subject + verb + question word ask Diahe she comeCome fromFrom wherewhere? Where did he / she come from? Where did he/she come from?
answer He came from Taiwan.  He / She come from Taiwan. He/she is from Taiwan.

  In addition, when using the question word "mana" of the place of inquiry, a preposition can be placed in front of itkego……,fromexist……,fromFrom……etc. At this time, ke mana, di mana, dari mana, etc. can be placed at the beginning or end of a sentence.

Preposition + mana example
Chinese Indonesian example English control Chinese meaning
ke + mana where to go ask The poweryouyou/you mauwant to gogo, go? Where are you going? Where are you/you going?
Where do you want to go?
answer I want to go to Taiwan. I am going to Taiwan. I am going to Taiwan.
from Where ask Whereyouyou/you? Where are you? Where are you/you?
Where are you?
answer I'm in Taiwan. I am in Taiwan. I am in Taiwan.
from from where ask From whereyouyou/you comeCome? Where are you from? Where are you/you from?
Where did you come from?
answer I come from Taiwan.  I came from Taiwan. I am from Taiwan. Interrogative sentences with table permission

  The above is the use of "interrogative words" to form interrogative sentences, but "boleh" and "bisa" can be used to express "permission". "boleh" means "yes", if the answer is yes, you will return "boleh", if it is negative, you will return "tidak boleh"; "bisa" means "can" or "will", and the answer may be yes It returns "bisa", if negative, it returns "tidak bisa". Both must be placed at the beginning of the sentence in order to form an interrogative sentence.

Sentence formula for the table "permit" example
Indonesian example English control Chinese meaning
Boleh + subject + verb + target language ask YesmeI○○? May I ○○? Can I ○○?
Answer (Yes) Yes can.PleasePlease. Yes, sure. is possible to. Please!
Answer (No) NoDo notcan. No. Can't!
Can ask Canspeakspeak (language)Indonesia? Can you speak Indonesian? Can (you) speak Indonesian?
Answer (Yes) Yes, can. Yes, I can. Yes, (I) will.
Answer (No) Can't. No, I can't. (I won't. Additional questions

  Additional interrogative sentence means adding a negative word to the interrogative sentence, so in Indonesian, as long as the negative word "bukan" is added, an additional interrogative sentence can be formed. Dative (Nominative, Possessive, Accusative)

  In English, nouns change in different forms according to different cases in a sentence (for example: the first-person singular is "I" when it is in the position of the subject, "me" when it is the object, and is used as the possessive When used, it is "my") and placed in different positions, and the Chinese subject and object are of the same type (for example: the first-person singular subject and object are both "I"), only all The case is added with the word "of" (eg, the possessive in the first person is "my").

  Words (single words) in Indonesian have no nominative, possessive (or genitive, genitive, genitive), accusative (or accusative, accusative) changes (for example: first-person singular The subject, object, and possessive are all "saya" or "aku") , but the case of the word is identified according to its placement. The following takes "first-person singular" in different positions in different sentences to represent different cases as an example.

Example (take the first person singular as an example)
Indonesian example English control Chinese meaning
Nominative Mostly at the beginning of the sentence.

MeI loveLove youyou.

I love you.

I love you.

possessive after the noun.

Thisthis boyfriendlovers memine.

This is my boyfriend / girlfriend.

This is my lover.

Qualified direct after the verb.

Youyou loveLove meI.

You love me.

you love me .

indirect Directly in front of the frame.

HelpPlease ambikangive meI waterboiled water.

Please give me a cup of boiled water.

Please bring me water. /Please give me plain water. /Please give me a glass of water. Tenses

  In English, the tense is usually explained in the verb part, but in Indonesian and Chinese, the verb does not change with the tense, but adds some words to represent different tenses, so the tense is placed in This is explained.

  The past tense, present progressive and future tense of Chinese can be expressed in three different tenses by adding words such as "already", "being" and "will be", and in Indonesian, just add "sudah" in sequence. , "sedang", "akan", etc. can express these tenses in sequence, and there is no change in the verb.

Indonesian tense
Classification formula
explain Indonesian example Chinese meaning
Past tense subject + sudah + verb already done…… I've already eaten. I've eaten.
present progressive subject + sedang + verb Doing now... I am eating. I'm eating.
Futuristic subject + akan + verb will do... I'll eat. I'm going to eat.

4.5 Phrases

4.5.1 Commonly used Thanks
  • Thanks! → Terima kasih.
  • Thank you so much! → Terima kasihmanyA lot of.(Used for a more respectful expression, tone.)

  • You're welcome! → Terima kasih kembali.
  • You're welcome! → Sama-sama. Apology
  • Sorry! → maaf.
  • Sorry! → Minta maaf.
  • very sorry! →Pleasepleadingmaaf. (used to make amends and solemnly apologize to elders.)

  • It doesn't matter. /this is nothing! →Nono; no whatthis-apa.
  • It doesn't matter. /this is nothing! → Enggak apa-apa. (Used in spoken language; "enggak" is the colloquial expression for "tidak".)
  • It doesn't matter. /this is nothing! → Nggak apa-apa. (Used in spoken language; "nggak" is the colloquial expression for "tidak".)
  • It doesn't matter. /this is nothing! → Gak apa-apa. (Used in spoken language; "gak" is a shortened version of "enggak" and "nggak".)
  • (do not worry. →Don'tdon't want…… worriedWorry. Request, request, please
  • Please give me ○○. → Minta ○○.
  • Please ○○. → Tolong ○○. (Used when asking.)
  • Please do not ○○. → Jangan ○○.
  • Please ○○. → Silakan ○○. (When used for persuasion.) Other common
  • Excuse me! → Permisi.
  • please wait for a moment! →WaitPleasea moment.
  • come on! → Semangat!

4.5.2 Greetings Meeting
  • Good morning! → SelamatmorningMorning. (Or shortened to "Pagi."; used to meet before "11 am.")
  • good afternoon! → Selamatafternoonnoon. (Or shortened to "Siang."; used to meet between "12 noon and 2 pm".)
  • good afternoon! → Selamatsoreafternoon. (Or shortened to "Sore."; used to meet "between 3pm and 6pm".)
  • Good night! → Selamatnightnight. (Or shortened to "Malam."; used to meet after "seven in the evening.")
  • Nice to meet you! / I am really happy to see you! →I amI Happyhappy; happy oncevery meetMeet withfollow, and... Youyou.(For first meeting.)
  • Hello! → Halo. (Used when making or receiving calls.)
    • Hello! I am ○○○! → Halo. Ini ○○○. (Used when making a phone call.)
    • Hello! I'm! → Halo. Saya sendiri. (Used when receiving a call.)
  • haven't seen you for a long time! →Alreadyalready longLong weus noNo meetMeet.
  • welcome! → Selamat datang. Say hello
  • ○○, how are you? /○○, how have you been recently? → Apa kabar, ○○? (“○○” can be filled with title or name, for example:Fathergentlemen,Thengentlemen,Pak PutuMr Putu,Mothermiss, lady,Thismiss, lady (abbreviation for Ibu),Bu ChenMiss Chenand many more. )
  • How are you? /How are you doing recently? →Whatwhat newsnews, fun?

  • it is good. → Baik.
  • (very good. → Kabar baik. (For formal responses.)
  • Ordinary. → Baik-baikjustOnly.
  • So-so! →ReasonableAppropriately (Well). Congratulations

  In the preceding chapter, the word "meet" in "greetings" is mentioned using the word "selamat" followed by a time (eg:morningMorning,afternoonnoon,soreafternoon,nightnight), which is equivalent to greetings when meeting, and the word "selamat" means "safe and safe" (used in congratulatory words). In addition to greetings when meeting, the word "selamat" is also commonly used in various congratulations in Indonesian. The meaning of the word "selamat" will not be explained again below. Words of Blessing
  • happy Birthday! →SelamatrepeatyearyearBirthday.
  • Happy Graduation! / Happy promotion! →Selamatabovefor…… successsuccess (graduation, promotion, doing something) Youyou.
  • Happy Newlyweds! /Congratulations on the wedding! →Selamatgo throughexperience lifenewnewnew life.
  • wish you success! / Hope you can succeed! →Hopefullypray successsuccess.
  • May all go well with you! → Semoga semua berjalan dengan lancer. Festival congratulations
  • happy New Year! → Selamat tahun baru.
  • Happy Eid al-Fitr! → Selamat (Hari Raya)Eid Al-Fitrcelebration of the end of the fast.
  • Merry Christmas! → SelamatChristmas DayChristmas. Farewell
  • Bon Voyage! → Selamatthe wayroad. (Used when sending off.)
  • goodbye! → SelamatLivestay; stay. (Literally "Please take care!", used when you are going to be apart for a while.)
  • Good night! → Selamatsleepsleep.(Use before going to bed.)
  • goodbye →Untiluntil meetMeet.
  • See you next time! → Sampai jumpaagainagain. (Used when separating.)
  • Bye bye! → Dada. (For people who are quite close, it is equivalent to "bye bye!" in English.)

4.5.3 Inquiry Asking things
  • what is this? →Whatwhat thisthis?
  • This is ○○. → Ini ○○.
  • This is not ○○. → Ininotno……○○.
  • what is that? → ApathatThat?
  • That is ○○. → Itu ○○.
  • That is not ○○. →Itu bukan ○○. Ask people
  • Who is this guy? / Who is this? →WhoWhothis?
  • This person is ○○. /This is ○○. → Ini ○○.
  • This person is not ○○. / This one is not. → Ini bukan ○○.
  • This is Mr. Li from Taiwan. → IniThengentlemen Lee fromFrom Taiwan.
  • who's that person? Who is that? → Siapa itu?
  • That person is ○○. / That person is ○○. → Itu ○○.
  • That person is not ○○. / That person is not ○○. → Itu bukan ○○. Ask Status
  • how is the weather today? →Howhow the weatherweather dayday thisthistoday?
  • The weather today is good! → Cuaca hari inisunnybright; sunny. Asking places
  • Where are you going? →Kego wherewhere youyou mauwant goPast? / Where do you want to go?
  • I'm going to ○○. →MeIwant to go to .
  • Where are you? →OfexistWhere are youthere isHave? / Where are you?
  • → I'm in .
  • where are you from? →FromFromWhere are you? / Where are you from?
  • I'm from ○○. → Aku dari ○○.
  • where do you come from? → Dari mana kamuoriginatedborn; from? / Where do you come from?
  • → I'm from .
  • Where do you live? →Livelivewhere / Where do you live?
  • → I live in . Ask time
  • what time is it? /what time is it now? →Jampoint how muchwhen? /NowNowwhat's the time? / What's the time now?

  • ○○ in the morning. → Jam ○○ pagi. (○○ can be filled with numbers.)
  • It is ○○ pm now. → Sekarang jam ○○ sore.
  • Now ○○ point △△ minute. → Sekarang jam ○○ △△ menit.
  • It is now ○○: △△ in the morning. → Sekarang jam ○○ △△ menit pagi.
  • It's half past three in the afternoon. → Sekarang jam setengah [○○ + 1]. (See the example below for an example.)
  • It's seven thirty in the afternoon. → Sekarang jam tujuh tiga puluh menit sore.
  • It's half past seven in the afternoon. → Sekarang jam setengah delapan sore. (It literally means "it's half past eight in the afternoon", which means "half past seven".) License
  • Can I ○○? → Boleh saya ○○?
  • Yes, it's OK. Please! → Ya, boleh. Silakan.
  • Can't! → Titak boleh.
  • Will you be ○○? → Bisa ○○?
  • Yes, I will. → Ya, bisa.
  • I won't. → Tidak bisa.

4.5.4 Answer

  • Yes; → Ya.
  • no. → Tidak. (When negating a verb or adjective.)
  • no. → Bukan. (When negating a noun or pronoun.)
  • Have. → Ada.
  • No. → Tidak ada.
  • I am not ○○. → Saya bukan ○○.
  • That's right! → Betul.
  • Of course! → Tentu saja.
  • I understand. /I know. /I understand. → Saya mengerti.
  • I don't quite understand. /I am not very sure. /I do not understand. /I do not quite understand. → Sayalessless; not very...understand.
  • I am not very clear. → Saya kurangknowknowledge.
  • I do not know. → Saya tidak tahu.
  • I don't have ○○ yet. / I have not yet ○○. →Sayanot yetnot yet……○○.
  • Can. → Boleh.
  • 。 → No.
  • can. →Bisa
  • cannot. →Tidak bisa.

4.5.5 Acquaintance/self-introduction

  In Chinese, the question word for asking someone's name is usually "what" (for example: what is his name?, what is his name?), but in Indonesian, when asking someone's name, it is is using "whoWho" to ask instead of "whatwhat". In addition, "namaya" in Indonesian is equivalent to "nama dia", which means "his/her name".

  • Sir, what is your name? → Siapanamename Fathergentlemen? (To a male elder or when meeting for the first time.)
  • Miss, what is your name? → Siapa namaMotherMiss? (To female elders or when meeting for the first time.)
  • Excuse me! Sir, what is your name? →Excuse meExcuse meThen,his namehis/her namesiapa? (To a male elder or when meeting for the first time.)
  • Excuse me! Miss, what is your name? → Permisi Bu, namanya siapa? (To female elders or when meeting for the first time.)
  • Sir, what is your name? → Siapa namaYouyou, Pak?
  • Miss, what is your name? Siapa nama Anda, Bu?
  • What's your name? → Siapa namayouyou? / Nama kamu siapa? (When the elder asks the younger, or when the elder asks the younger.)
  • What is his/her name? → Siapa namanya? / Namanya Siapa?
  • My name is ○○. → NamameI○○.
  • Where do you work? → KamuworkWorkwhere
  • I work at ○○. → Aku bekerja di ○○.
  • What is your occupation? → ApaprofessionProfessionYou?
  • I am ○○. → Saya ○○.
  • 當 → I work atasas...△△.
  • Introduce to you! / Let me introduce to you! →Bigcome; letmeIntroduceintroduce.
  • This is ○○. →Ini ○○.
  • This is ○○ from △△. →Ini ○○ dari △△.
  • I am ○○ person. → Sayapeoplepeople ○○. (○○ can be filled in by country or region.)

5 Conclusion and learning experience

  Before writing this article, the author did not learn Indonesian, but when I learned about the background of various languages, I found that many materials indicated that Indonesian is a very simple and easy language to learn. After reading many languages, I was very curious about why so many evaluations of Indonesian say that Indonesian is very simple compared to other languages, so I bought a book in Indonesian to study it a little to see how simple it is.

  After reading a lot of materials and teaching Indonesian in books, I found that Indonesian is indeed relatively simple compared to other languages. From the most basic text, you only need to use twenty-six letters that are exactly the same as in English. The pronunciation rules are very consistent with the spelling of the text. They are not as complicated, so many exceptions, and so inconsistent because of the spelling rules, and the parts of speech are almost the same. There is no change, no nouns have three singles and case changes, verbs tense changes, etc., as in English, and the grammar is indeed much simpler.

  But for native learners of Chinese, Indonesian is not easy in any part. I believe that many people find the most troublesome place in pronunciation. I knew that Spanish has alveolar vibrato, so I deliberately learned it (at that time, because I learned the French uvula trill "r", this sound is easier to pronounce, and I found that the sound is similar, and I learned the alveolar vibrato by changing the pronunciation position a little) , but after all, it is still a bit difficult for learners who do not have this sound in their native language. It is very easy to pronounce this sound anytime, anywhere, and it takes more practice to be able to make this sound smoothly and freely.

  In the end, in addition to learning a simple language used by more than 200 million people at the same time, I also learned some language backgrounds and cultural history of Indonesia and Malaysia. This is a field of knowledge that has not been touched before. It is an unexpected gain and experience.


  1. Zzzoe (2018), " Understanding Indonesian with 15 Charts: Say hello to Indonesian friends and get started ". The News Lens Critical Review Network.
  2. Yiru Jiang (translator) (2014), My First Indonesian Textbook: The Best Introductory Indonesian Language Book (with MP3) (Original Author: Lee, Joo-yeon). New Taipei City: International School Village.
  3. New York Spoken English (2018), " Indonesian Alphabet ". Sohu.
  4. Fan Zaihuo (2018), "Are "Indonesian" and "Malay" completely different "two languages"? ──Don’t let the drawn borders and the grievances between countries limit our vision of understanding culture .” Change the date line.
  5. Wikipedia editor (2019), " Decimal point ". Wikipedia.
  6. Wikipedia editor (2020), " Indonesia ". Wikipedia.
  7. Wikipedia editor (2020), " Indonesian ". Wikipedia.
  8. Wikipedia editor (2019), " Indonesian Numbers ". Wikipedia.
  9. Wikipedia editor (2019), " Instructions for use: Malay International Phonetic Alphabet ". Wikipedia.
  10. Wikipedia editor (2020), " Phonemes ". Wikipedia.
  11. Wikipedia editor (2020), " New Southbound Policy ". Wikipedia.
  12. Wikipedia editor (2019), " Word Order ". Wikipedia.

Update record

  1. 2022/05/17, Multilingual version added.
  2. 2022/04/17, Added "Indonesia" label.