Indonesian(Indonesian,IndonesianIndonesian (Bahasa Indonesia, Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia, and about 200 million people can communicate in Bahasa Indonesia. Compared with other languages, Indonesian has very simple grammar rules and is easy to learn for non-native language learners. This article will first let readers understand the concept of Indonesian, and explain Indonesian characters, pronunciation, grammar, phrases, etc., so that non-native language learners and beginners can understand and learn basic Indonesian.
Table of contents
1 Preface: Why learn Indonesian?
Compared with other popular languages, Bahasa Indonesia has received less public attention, and there are relatively few learning resources such as web pages, books, courses, etc. about Bahasa Indonesia, which makes many people wonder why they should learn Bahasa Indonesia, but in fact Bahasa Indonesia There is a certain potential, including the development of Indonesia in recent years, as well as Indonesian immigrants and laborers around the world. There are also a lot of Indonesians in Taiwan. Compared with other languages, there is less competition, and Indonesian is relatively simple. Language, the following will introduce readers why they should learn Indonesian and what is the value of learning Indonesian?
1.1 Current situation: a large number of users and a wide range of users
There are about 42.8 million people in the world who use Bahasa Indonesia as their mother tongue, and about 155 million people use Bahasa Indonesia as a second language, so there are about 200 million people in the world who can use Bahasa Indonesia, and Bahasa Indonesia The native language countries and regions include Indonesia (Indonesia) and East Timor, which are the official languages of Indonesia. At the same time, with the dispersal of Indonesian immigrants and helpers working abroad, many Indonesian-speaking people spread to other places, including the Netherlands, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia), Singapore, the United States and Taiwan. and so on.
In Taiwan, according to the Ministry of the Interior’s Immigration and Immigration Agency’s statistics on foreigners residing in Taiwan in May 2018, there were 241,879 Indonesians in Taiwan, and the total population of Taiwan was 23,572,415, so about every 100 people in Taiwan Among them, there will be a person from Indonesia. Therefore, among the foreigners in Taiwan, Indonesians are the most. Although they are not as famous as other popular languages, they are actually one of the foreign languages that are easily accessible to native speakers in Taiwan.
In addition, Indonesian and Malay have a high degree of similarity, because Indonesian is actually developed from the Malay Riau dialect, so it is one of the Malay language groups, although the two have some pronunciation, There are differences in vocabulary and spelling, but overall there is no big obstacle in the communication between the two. Malay has 20 to 30 million native speakers and is the official language of Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
Therefore, more than 40 million people speak Bahasa Indonesia as their mother tongue and more than 150 million people use it as their second language. A total of more than 200 million people use Bahasa Indonesia. If Malay, which has a high degree of commonality, is used by more than 30 million people (Malaysia has 13 million people who speak Malay as their mother tongue and 10 million people as their second language, Indonesian Sumatra has 10 million people, Thailand has 1 million people, and Singapore has 400,000 people), then the user population may be as high as two There are more than 130 million people, and the number of users is very large. There are Indonesian immigrants and laborers all over the world, and Taiwan has the largest number of foreigners. Therefore, the number of people who learn Bahasa Indonesia is not a small number.
1.2 Language value: Indonesia's increasing influence, Indonesia's official language, new southbound policy
Indonesia is a country composed of many large and small islands. It will consist of about 17,508 islands, of which 6,000 are inhabited. Therefore, it is known as the "country of a thousand islands". There are more than 300 races , and more than 500 languages or dialects, so if you want to go to Indonesia for tourism, trade, business and other activities, it is impossible to learn so many languages at the same time, so it is very important to learn a unified language, and the unified Indonesia The official language is Indonesian.
Furthermore, Indonesia has a total population of about 280 million people, making it the fourth most populous country in the world. Although Indonesia is a developing country, its early historical background is similar to that of other South and Southeast Asian countries, with a backward industrial structure and The industry is underdeveloped, but since 2007, with the improvement of the banking sector and domestic consumption, the GDP in 2011 has grown by 6.5 %. At present, there are about 6 million workers working overseas in Indonesia. Indonesia itself also has Rich in natural resources, it is the founding country of ASEAN, a member of the G20, the world's sixteenth largest economy in 2017, and the country with the largest Muslim population in the world (86.1 % population believes in Islam).
In addition, in response to the rise of ASEAN countries and the emphasis on new immigrants from Southeast Asia and the bilingual second generation, Taiwan actively expanded its economic and market ties with ASEAN, India, Australia, and New Zealand, and established the New Southbound Policy in 2016. , establish exchange policies such as economy, trade, education and culture, and the target countries included in this policy are Indonesia. Therefore, for Taiwan, there will be more frequent opportunities for contact and exchanges with Indonesia in the future, and it is bound to have more talents and resources that need to speak Indonesian.
To sum up, as many as 200 million people can use Bahasa Indonesia, the number of people who use a language often affects one of the factors of whether someone is willing to learn the language, and there is no doubt that Bahasa Indonesia has a large population , plus many Indonesian immigrants and migrant workers scattered around the world, the spread of the Indonesian language has become wider. For activities such as sightseeing or doing business in Indonesia, learning a unified Indonesian language is more advantageous than learning various local dialects. Although English is a common language in the world, for Indonesian locals, as long as they go to school, they can learn Indonesian language. , on the contrary, Bahasa Indonesia is more commonly used than English. for non-native speakers.
1.3 Difficulty of learning: simple grammar, easy to learn, low cost and high benefit
The ease of learning a language may also affect a person's willingness to continue learning. Compared with other languages, Indonesian is a language with simple grammar, loose structure and easy learning. Bahasa Indonesia is a phonetic text, using twenty-six Latin letters (exactly the same as English letters), most of the text and pronunciation correspond to each other, there are not as many rules and exceptions as English, so as long as you have learned the basic letters Pronunciation, even if you don’t understand Indonesian, you can roughly know how to pronounce it, so phonetic symbols are not very necessary, stress is not important, there is no tonal system, and the grammar is relatively simple, with no yin and yang and no tense changes. Therefore, learning Indonesian is relatively simple and easy. It takes less time to learn a language used by many people (more than 200 million people), and it is equivalent to learning Malay at the same time (even if there are some differences, it can generally communicate with each other). A language that is cheap to learn but highly profitable.
2 Concept discussion
The development of human language is often accompanied by factors such as historical context, cultural bearing, and humanistic changes. Therefore, when learning a language, if you can understand the background culture of the language, you will be able to understand the structure, usage, change, or etymology of the language. Have a deeper understanding and experience. Therefore, the following will discuss what Indonesian is and where Indonesian comes from.
2.1 What is Bahasa Indonesia?
Indonesian/Indonesian(Indonesian:Bahasa Indonesia;English:Indonesian), referred to asIndonesian/Bahasa Indonesia / Bahasa Indonesiaetc., is a standardized Malay language (Malay language), that is, the Indonesian Malay Riau dialect. near Jakarta), and 155 million people as a second language, so there are more than 200 million people in the world who use Bahasa Indonesia.
In terms of language classification, both "Indonesian" and "Malay" belong to the "Malay language group" of the "Malay-Polynesian language family" under the "Austronesian language family". " in one of the languages. By the way, the languages of Taiwan's aborigines (Taiwan's Austronesian languages) also belong to the Austronesian language family. If you know the languages of Taiwan's aborigines, you may find some similarities in them. A more detailed hierarchical classification of the two languages "Indonesian" and "Malay" is given below to give the reader an idea of the relationship between the languages.
- Core Malayo-Polynesian
- Sundanese-Sulawesi languages
- Malay group
- sub-Malay group
- Malay language
- Malay language
- sub-Malay group
- Malay group
- Sundanese-Sulawesi languages
- Core Malayo-Polynesian
2.2 Origin of Indonesian
From the content of the above chapters, we can know that Indonesian and Malay are very similar, but why are they so similar? This is due to the fact that the ancestors of these two languages were originally the unofficial lingua franca of Southeast Asia, which was previously used as a common language for trade in the Malacca Strait area. Therefore, as long as people in this area and related areas study more, they can easily master the language.
But in fact, before the independence of Indonesia, there was no such language and name as "Indonesian" (Indonesian). Although there was a place name "Indonesia", it was not yet a country name, and "Malay" had already The Malay Archipelago, Indonesia and other places have been in circulation for a long time.
In order to overthrow the independence of the Dutch colonial language, a group of Indonesian nationalist youths issued the "Youth Manifesto" (Sumpah Pemuda) at the "National Youth Congress" (Indonesian Youth Conference) on October 27 and 28, 1928 for two days, A declaration that advocates "one country, one nation, one language" (the original Indonesian text of "nation" is "bangsa", which is closer to the meaning of "nation"), and makes Indonesian official language (national language) . Otherwise, among the more than 6,000 islands inhabited by more than 17,000 islands in Indonesia, there are more than 300 ethnic groups (Javanese, Sunda, Badak, Aceh, etc.), and more than 500 ethnic groups. languages (Javanese, Sunda, etc.), the entire country will not be able to communicate, communicate, and unify the country and language.
In fact, the most widely used language in Indonesia at that time was "Javanese" (the Javanese population accounted for 45%), but it was not selected as the "national language" of Indonesia, but was chosen as a simpler language that has been circulating in the Malay Archipelago for centuries. The Riau dialect of the common language "Malay" is used as the national language(Indonesian is also much easier to learn than Javanese), to be transformed, standardized, Indonesianized, and renamed "Indonesian", from which Indonesian language was born, and Indonesian language is mostly used in publishing, programs, media, business, administration, and education at all levels, so that Indonesian Language popularization. However, although Indonesian is used in the official language, mass communication, etc., in fact, Indonesians still use their respective dialects to communicate in private and in daily life. Therefore, foreigners who come to Indonesia may hear a variety of accents and dialects (the Indonesian government has not banned dialects, so Indonesians retain their own dialects and customs), but as long as they learn "Indonesian", they can communicate with Indonesians (As long as most educated Indonesians can use Indonesian), without having to learn a lot of dialects.
3 learning methods
In the previous chapters of this article, it was mentioned that Bahasa Indonesia is an easy language to learn. In terms of text, Indonesian is a phonetic text, and letters and pronunciation are highly corresponding, that is, in most cases, a letter basically corresponds to a sound (although there are exceptions, but they are very few, unlike English letters There may be multiple pronunciations), so as long as you learn the pronunciation of each letter, even if you don’t understand Indonesian, you can read it literally, so Indonesian basically doesn’t use phonetic symbols. Furthermore, the alphabet also uses twenty-six Latin letters, which are exactly the same as the English alphabet, so there is no need to learn additional characters. Therefore, compared to learning phonetic symbols or another writing system for other difficult languages, the part of Indonesian characters and phonetic symbols has been solved before learning Indonesian.
In addition, in 1972, former Indonesian President Suharto made a series of official revisions to the Indonesian spelling system and officially promulgated the Indonesian spelling specification (Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan), which is to unify Indonesian Indonesian Although the new system has been widely used, many people are still accustomed to using the old system to spell their names. The spelling used in this article is the new system, but the comparison table of the old Indonesian system and the new system is listed below for readers who need it.
|old Indonesian spelling||Indonesian new spelling|
As for the part of word order, word order (English: word order) is a grammatical lexical order. Any language has subjects, objects and verbs, so there will be problems of word order and grammatical cases. The word order arrangement with the most languages in the world is actually "subject + object + verb" (for example: Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Latin, etc., accounting for 45%), while the familiar Chinese and English are "subject + verb + object", fortunately, the word order of Indonesian is just the familiar "subject + verb + object", so when learning Indonesian, it is easier to learn and construct sentences quickly, and it is not easy to confuse. But remember that adjectives in Indonesian are postfixes, that is, adjectives are placed after nouns, unlike Chinese, where adjectives are placed before nouns. Except for these small places, the word order of Indonesian as a whole It is relatively familiar to us and easy to learn.
Finally, regarding the vocabulary part, since Indonesia was once colonized by the Netherlands, many Dutch loanwords were printed, which is not the case in Malay. Since the Dutch language is close to English and German and belongs to the West Germanic branch, in the Dutch loanwords of Indonesian, you will see words similar to English. For example, the Indonesian word for "doctor" is "dokter", Dutch is also "dokter", while English is "doctor". For readers who have learned English, words in similar situations can help us remember such words.
4 Learning Points
The above chapters introduce the background knowledge related to Indonesian language. This chapter will enter the learning of Indonesian language. However, since learning a language cannot be taught in a few words, this article will only sort out and list the most important parts. It allows readers to reach the level of learning basic Indonesian, rather than aiming at advanced level. Finally, if you want to speak Bahasa Indonesia more quickly, or you need to use Bahasa Indonesia frequently, you can go directly to the last part of this chapter, "Phrases", where there will be the most commonly used Bahasa Indonesia-related phrases and sentences.
4.1 Text: Indonesian alphabet
The text used in Indonesian is very simple. It uses twenty-six letters, which are exactly the same as the English alphabet (Latin alphabet). As long as you know the twenty-six letters, you don't need to learn additional Indonesian letters. But it should be noted that although the twenty-six Latin letters are used like English, most of the pronunciation is different from English pronunciation. The Indonesian alphabet has its own pronunciation, which is organized as follows.
|uppercase letter||Lower case letters||letter name|
As for how to pronounce the Indonesian alphabet, please continue to the "Pronunciation" section in the next chapter, which has complete Indonesian pronunciation content.
The pronunciation of Indonesian is very simple. As long as you learn the vowels and consonants, you can roughly read the words when you see them. As for the accent and intonation in Indonesian, they are not very important, and there is no tone, so you can learn it quickly.
4.2.1 Vowels (vowels)
22.214.171.124 Monovowel letters
Indonesian has five single-vowel letters: a, e, i, o, u, but there are six vowels, because the letter "e" has two pronunciations at the same time: [e], [ə], but except for the letter "e" Except for , most of the other four letters correspond to a pronunciation.
|single vowel||International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
||Phonetic notation and pronunciation
|e||e||ɛ||ㆤ (closed ㄝ)||ㄝ (open ㆤ)||keju||pek|
|o||o||ɔ||ㄛ (closed ㆦ)||ㆦ (open ㄛ)||orang||pohono
|u||u||ㄨ||the suthe su|
- One of the pronunciation [e] of the letter "e" will be pronounced [ɛ] in the closed last syllable. Although the pronunciation will change at this time, it does not affect the semantics, so it is considered the same phoneme (English: Phoneme, also translated phoneme), the pronunciation [o] of the same letter "o" will be pronounced [ɔ] in the closed last syllable, which is also the same phoneme. Because the same one does not affect the semantics, it is okay for beginners to not be able to grasp the difference in a short time. It does not affect communication, but there may be a slight difference in accent, but it should be noted that the [e] and [e] of the letter "e" must be distinguished. [ə] These two sounds, because these two vowels are different phonemes in Indonesian.
126.96.36.199 Compound vowels
Indonesian has three compound vowel letters: ai, au, and oi, which are respectively pronounced with double vowels: [aɪ], [au], [oɪ].
|compound vowels||International Phonetic Alphabet||Phonetic notation and pronunciation||example|
|ai||aɪ||ㄞ (ㄚㄧ)||the sungai|
|au||au||ㄠ (ㄚㄨ)||the saudara|
4.2.2 Consonants (consonants)
188.8.131.52 Monophonic letters
Bahasa Indonesia has twenty-one monophonic letters.
||International Phonetic Alphabet
||Phonetic notation and pronunciation
|b||b||ㆠ (voiced "ㄅ")||Voiced (voiced consonants)||babi
|c||t͡ɕ / t͡s||ㄐ／ㄗ||voiceless (unvoiced consonants)||cabai
|d||d||(voiced "ㄉ")||Voiced (voiced consonants)||duduk
|f||f||ㄈ||voiceless (unvoiced consonants)||maaf|
|g||g||ㆣ (voiced "ㄍ")||Voiced (voiced consonants)||gado-gado
|h||h||ㄏ||voiceless (unvoiced consonants)||hari
|j||d͡ʑ / d͡z||ㆢ／ㆡ (voiced "ㄐ" / "ㄗ")||Voiced (voiced consonants)||jalan
|k||k||ʔ||ㄍ||ㆷ||voiceless (unvoiced consonants)||kacang||bapak, rakyat
|l||l||ㄌ||Voiced (voiced consonants)||the boleh|
|m||m||ㄇ||Voiced (voiced consonants)||makan
|no||no||ㄋ||Voiced (voiced consonants)||inoi|
|p||p||p̚||ㄅ||ㆴ||voiceless (unvoiced consonants)||pagi||tutup
|q||k||ㄎ||voiceless (unvoiced consonants)||Quran
|r||r||Tongue||Voiced (voiced consonants)||parthe kir|
|the s||the s||ㄙ||voiceless (unvoiced consonants)||the saya
|t||t||t̚||ㄉ ˙||ㆵ||voiceless (unvoiced consonants)||tadi||Selamat
|v||v||ㄪ (voiced "ㄈ")||Voiced (voiced consonants)||valuta
|w||w||ㄨ||Voiced (voiced consonants)||wangi
|x||ks||ㄎ ㄙ||voiceless (unvoiced consonants)||x-ray
|the y||j||ㄧ||Voiced (voiced consonants)||the ya
||Voiced (voiced consonants)||zaman
- The pronunciation of the letter "k" and the letter "q" is the same, both pronounce the consonant "[k]".
- The letters q, v, x, z are commonly used in European and Indian loanwords.
- For people whose mother tongue has no stop consonant and affricative consonant (voiceless consonant) and voiceless consonant (voiced consonant) opposite (for example: Chinese), some similar sounds in Indonesian are easy to confuse, but the difference is only in the voiceless sound The throat does not vibrate when pronouncing, but vibrating is required for voiced sounds. Listed below are several groups of letters that are easily confused, the former being unvoiced and the latter being voiced.
- p vs b
- t vs d
- k vs g
- c vs j
- "p, t, k" in Indonesian is equivalent to the entering tone of other Chinese families (such as Hokkien) when placed at the end of the sound. But the difference is that "k" in Indonesian is not equal to "k" in Hokkien but "h", which is "[ʔ]" is pronounced with the letter "k" instead of "h".
184.108.40.206 Compound consonants
Indonesian has four compound consonants: kh, ng, ny, sy, which are respectively pronounced as consonants: [x], [ŋ], [ɲ], [ʃ]. Although the compound consonants of Indonesian are composed of two letters, only one consonant is pronounced.
|compound consonants||International Phonetic Alphabet
||Phonetic notation and pronunciation
- Compound consonants "ny" and "sy" appear only in Arabic words in Indonesian.
- The Indonesian letters "kh" and "h" are somewhat similar but pronounced differently. The compound consonant letter "kh" is pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative "[x]" (a laryngeal wall sound). When the airflow is at the position of the laryngeal wall, there will be strong friction, which often appears in Arabic loanwords (such as : khas); and the monophonic letter "h" is pronounced as voiceless glottal fricative (or voiceless glottal transition, voiceless laryngeal fricative) "[h]", with less friction and more soothing pronunciation.
- "sy" will be pronounced differently depending on the back vowel. When followed by the vowel letter "a", the sound of "[ɕ]" is pronounced (the phonetic phonetic is "ㄒ"), so "sya" sounds like the sound of the phonetic phonetic "ㄒㄧㄚ"; if followed by the vowel letter "u ", the sound of "[ʃ]" is pronounced, so "syu" sounds like the phonetic phonetic "ㄒㄩㄨ".
4.2.3 Stress and intonation
existIn Indonesian pronunciation, there are no tones, and stress and intonation are not very important, because Indonesian does not change the meaning of words and sentences because of the severity and strength of pronunciation. But usually the stress of two-syllable and three-syllable words will fall on the penultimate syllable, for example: "I" in Indonesian is "saya", and the stress usually falls on "sa". Compared with other languages, the intonation of Indonesian is relatively flat, with few ups and downs, and the intonation only rises at the end of interrogative sentences.
However, Indonesian language may have different stress positions depending on different people, different accents, and different habits, but it will not affect the meaning and semantic understanding at all, so even if the accent does not follow the above rules, there is no big problem. .
(Vocabularies are being sorted out, or readers can look up Indonesian vocabulary in online dictionaries)
At the beginning of learning a language, you must learn basic pronunciation. After knowing how to pronounce, you must learn to speak a complete sentence to express the meaning. You must learn grammar/grammar. As mentioned in the previous chapter, Indonesian is a relatively simple grammar. The language and structure are not as cumbersome and rigorous as other European languages (Indonesian has no masculine and tense changes). The following is a detailed introduction to the grammar of Indonesian. I believe readers will know how much Indonesian grammar is after reading it. easy.
4.4.1 Word types
Before understanding the sentence structure in Indonesian, it is helpful to understand the nature and changes of various parts of speech, which is helpful to understand the structure and meaning of the entire sentence. Fortunately, the changes of various parts of speech in Indonesian are very simple, and nouns have no gender. Plurals only need to repeat the single word once, and there is no tense change in the verb. Let's explain the various parts of speech below.
The nouns in Indonesian are very simple, and there is no need to distinguish between Yin and Masculine like many European languages (for example: French, Spanish, etc.), and there are even three types of Yin, Yang, and Neutral (for example: German, Russian), There is also no change of case (for example: the nominative case, accusative case, and possessive case of English first-person pronouns are I, me, and my respectively), that is, nouns in Indonesian have almost no change in form, and plural changes only need to be changed at the same time. A single word can be repeated twice (for example, the Indonesian word for "book" is "buku", and the plural form is "buku-buku"). So overall, Indonesian nouns are very easy to learn and remember.
220.127.116.11.1 Complex numbers
Plural changes in different languages vary in complexity. For example, plurals in English mostly add "s", "es", and "ves" at the end of the suffix, but there are also many irregular changes (for example: foot → feet, man → men, woman → women, etc.), there are are singular and plural isomorphic (for example: deer → dee, sheep → sheepr, etc.).
In the Chinese we are familiar with, most nouns do not have a plural form, and only adjectives such as "many", "several", "a large number" and "a small amount" are added in front of the nouns to indicate the nouns. number, but after the "personal pronoun" will add "we", "some" and other words to represent the plural of the noun (for example: "we", "you", "they", "these", "those" etc.), but if it is not a "personal pronoun" do not add the word "men" (for example: "two students" instead of "two students").
However, in Bahasa Indonesia, the inflections of plural nouns are very simple. It is not necessary to add plural morphemes (s, es, ves...) "or "some" and other words to judge singular and plural, only needNouns repeated twice and separated by a hyphencan be formed in plural form, very simply.For example:"Book"ofIndonesianis "buku", the plural form is "buku-buku", also means "a lot of books", "some books", "a pile of books", etc., and can also be briefly marked as "buku2".
In addition, quantifiers can also be used to indicate the number of nouns, and they can also form plural forms. For example: "two people" is "dua roang" in Indonesian, "dua" means "two" and "roang" means "people".
|Classification of pronouns
||saya (honorific)||I||kita (contains obedient objects)||us|
|aku||kami (excluding obedient objects)|
||Anda (honorary)||you||Anda Sekalian||you|
|saudari||……Miss||saudari - saudari||ladies|
|bapak / pak (honorary title)||gentlemen||bapak-bapak (respected title)||Gentlemen|
|ibu / bu (honorary title)||Miss||ibu-ibu (honorary title)||Ladies|
||dia / ia||he she||mereka||They/they|
|beliau (honorary title)|
||Refers to things||close name||ini||This, this, this...||ini||These, these groups...|
|Far name||itu||That, that, that...||itu||Those, those groups...|
|refers to the premises
|state||bagaimana||how / how / how|
|place||mana||where / where / where|
|time||kapan||when / when|
- Indonesian demonstrative pronouns (designated pronouns) do not have a singular or plural (for example: this, these are "ini"), and can also be used for things or people (for example: this, this are "ini").
- The Indonesian language will quote the local Indonesian dialect and the Chinese dialect of the Chinese.
- Minnan Language
- Me: Gua/Gue
- You: Loe / Lu
- The dialect of Jakarta and its suburbs (the main way of calling Java)
- Big brother: Mas (originally means "brother", when used to address local men, it can be used as a general term for "brother" or "Mr.")
- Miss: Mbak (originally meaning "sister", when used to address local women, it can be used as a collective name for "sister" or "miss".)
- Minnan Language
Numbers (numerals) in Indonesian are very simple and regular. As long as you understand the basic ten numbers from 0 to 9, you can understand ordinal numbers.
18.104.22.168.3.1 Cardinal numerals
The number rules in Indonesian are very simple. You only need to be familiar with the ten numbers from 0 to 9, and you can find out all the number combinations regularly.
- One-digit numerals (two to nine) plus "belas" are ten-digit numeralstwelve to nineteen.
- One-digit numerals (two to nine) plus "puluh" isTwenty, thirty, forty...ninety for tens digit numerals.
- One-digit numerals (two to nine) plus "ratus" areTwo hundred and three hundred in hundreds digit numerals……nine hundred.
- Add "ribu" to single-digit numerals (two to nine) to getTwo thousand and three thousand in thousands digit numerals……nine thousand.
- Single-digit numerals (two to nine) plus "juta" isTwo million and three million in hundreds digit numerals……nine million.
- The only irregular numbers are ten, eleven, one hundred, one thousandThat's all, everything else is in accordance with the rules.
|0||nol / kosong / koos||zero|
|8||delapan / lapan||eight|
|9||sembilan / sebilan||Nine|
|illustrate||The most basic ten numbers (0~9).|
|illustrate||As long as the word "belas" representing "10" is added after the single digits "2" to "9", it can represent the number "ten", but pay attention to the two exceptions of "10" and "11".|
|21||dua puluh satu||twenty one|
|99||sembilan puluh sembilan||Ninety-nine|
|illustrate||As long as the single digit "2" to "9" is followed by the single word "puluh" representing the tens digit unit, it can represent the number "tens", but "11" is not included.|
|200||dua ratus||two hundred|
|201||dua ratus satu||two hundred and one|
|373||tiga ratus tujuh puluh tiga||three hundred and seventy three|
|985||sebilan ratus delapan puluh lima||Nine hundred and eighty five|
|illustrate||As long as you add the word "ratus" representing the hundreds digit unit after the single digits "2" to "9", you can represent the number "hundreds", but "100" is not included.|
|2000||dua ribu||two thousand|
|illustrate||As long as the word "ribu" representing the unit of thousands is added after the single digits "2" to "9", the number of "thousands" can be represented, but "1000" is not included.|
|10000||sepuluh ribu||ten thousand|
|20000||dua puluh ribu||twenty thousand|
|100000||seratus ribu||one hundred thousand|
|230000||dua ratus tiga puluh ribu||two hundred and thirty thousand|
|illustrate||For numbers above 10,000, add tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. in front of the thousands digit. The formula is "10 x 1000 = 10000".|
|1000000||satu juta||one million|
|2000000||dua juta||two million|
|6800000||enam juta delapan ratus ribu||6.8 million|
|10000000||sepuluh juta||Ten million|
|20000000||dua puluh juta||20 million|
|68000000||enam puluh delapan juta||sixty-eight million|
|100000000||seratus juta||100 million|
|200000000||dua ratus juta||200 million|
|illustrate||The word representing a million digit unit is "ribu".|
- The numerical examples in the above table do not add the digit place symbol, because the digit place symbols in Indonesian and Chinese are different. If you want to add a placemark, you must pay attention to the fact that the symbols used in different languages or regions may be different. In Chinese and English regions, the usual thousands place symbol is "," and the decimal point is ".", but in Indonesian The thousand symbol is "." and the decimal point is "," (for example: "1,234,567.89" in Chinese and English is "1,234,567.89" in Chinese) , but in Indonesia and parts of Europe, "1.234.567,89", there are other representations in other parts of Europe).
- There are two Indonesian words for "eight": "delapan" and "lapan". ", but it is only used in spoken language and cannot be used in formal written language.
22.214.171.124.3.2 Ordinal numbers
The ordinal numbers in Indonesian are very simple, you only need to add "ke" in front of the number (cardinal number) to form the ordinal number in the number. For example: Adding "ke" in front of the Indonesian word "dua" for "two" forms the word "kedua" which means "second".
|1||pertama / kesatu||First|
|quantifier formula||explain||Indonesian example||Chinese meaning|
|number + quantifier + noun||any quantity is available||1 cangkir kopi||a cup of coffee|
|2 cangkir kopi||two cups of coffee|
|[se + quantifier] + noun||Singular only||secangkir kopi||a cup of coffee|
|sepotong Biskuit||a cookie|
126.96.36.199.1 Basic order of verbs
The word order of the verbs in Indonesian is the same as that in English and Chinese, and they are located after the subject.
The passive form in Indonesian is very simple, you only need to add "di" in front of the verb to form the passive form.
|Indonesian Verb Passive Formulas||example|
|Indonesian||Chinese||Indonesian example||Chinese meaning|
|[di + verb]||buka||Open||dibuka||was opened|
|jawab||answer||dijawab||got an answer|
|tanya||ask a question||ditanya||be asked|
188.8.131.52.1 Basic word order of adjectives
In Chinese, modifiers (including adjectives, possessives, etc.) are mostly placed in front of the noun to be modified (except some usages in some Chinese dialects), such as "many books", "my book" and so on; In English, it depends on the length and type of the modifier to decide whether to place it before or after the noun. For example, as long as the modifier is a single adjective or a short modifier, it is placed in front, such as "many books" and "my books", but If the modifier has a long voice or the entire clause, it needs to be changed to a postfix. For example, in Chinese, "He likes the book someone gave him" is translated into English as "He likes the book someone gave him.", "someone gave him" is used to modify "book".
However, in Indonesian, modifiers (adjectives, possessives, etc.) are placed after the noun to be modified. Taking the example of "My Book" above, the Indonesian word is "buku saya", which means "buku" For "book", "saya" means "I", but "saya" becomes "my" when it is placed after a noun, and it is used to modify "buku" of a noun, "buku saya" means "my book" mean.
184.108.40.206.2 Word order of adjectives in sentences
|word order of adjectives in a sentence||Indonesian||Chinese|
|Word Order of Adjectives in Affirmative Sentences||subject + adjective||Dia cnatik.||She is very pretty.|
|Word order when an adverb modifies an adjective||subject + adjective + adverb||Dia cantik sekali.||She is very beautiful.|
|subject + adverb + adjective||Dia sekali cantik.|
|Word Order of Adjectives in Negative Sentences||Subject + tidak + adjective||Dia tidak cantik.||She is not pretty. / She is not good-looking.|
|Word Order of Adjectives in Interrogative Sentences||Apa + subject + adjective||Apa dia cantik?||Is she pretty?|
|adjective comparative formula||explain||example|
|Indonesian example||Chinese meaning|
|lebih + adjective+ daripada + compared to||more than...‥||lebih besar daripada itu||bigger than that|
|[se + adjective]||like||sebesar itu||as big as that|
|adjective superlative formula||example|
|Indonesian example||Chinese meaning|
|paling + adjective||paling bagus||the best|
220.127.116.11.1 Adverb order
- adverb + verb/subject/adjective
18.104.22.168.2 Adverbs of degree
|degree adverb formula||example|
|Indonesian example||Chinese meaning|
|adverb of degree + adjective||sedikit besar||slightly bigger|
|degree compound + verb||sedikit lapar||a little bit hungry|
22.214.171.124.3 Adverbs of frequency
- Subject + adverb of frequency + general verb
|approximate frequency||Indonesian Adverbs of Frequency||English control||Chinese meaning|
|Classification of connectives||Indonesian||Chinese|
|side by side||dan||and, and|
|turning point||tetapi (tapi)||but|
|cause and effect||karena||because|
|suppose||kalau||if, in case|
4.4.2 Sentence patterns
126.96.36.199 Declarative sentences
188.8.131.52.1 Affirmative sentences
|Affirmative Sentence Formulas of Declarative Sentences
|Indonesian example||English control||Chinese meaning|
|subject + verb + target language||Saya makan roti.||I eat bread.||I eat bread.|
|subject + verb + complement||Subject + (adalah) + noun||Dia adalah teman saya.||He / She is my friend.||He/she is my friend.|
|Dia teman saya.|
- The "adalah" in Indonesian is equivalent to the "be verb" in English, which means "is..." in Chinese. However, the difference between the Indonesian "adalah" and the English "be verb" is that Indonesian often omits this word, so the sentence pattern often presents the state of "subject + noun", especially in spoken dialogue, it is almost always omitted.
184.108.40.206.2 Negative sentences
Negative sentences only need to add negative words to the affirmative sentence. There are roughly two negative words, namely "bukan" and "tidak". "bukan" is used to negate nouns or pronouns, while "tidak" is used to negate verbs or adjectives.
|Negative Words of Negative Sentences
|Indonesian example||English control||Chinese meaning|
|tidak + verb/adjective||Saya Tidak makan roti.||I don't eat bread.||I don't eat bread.|
|bukan + noun/pronoun||Dia bukan teman saya.||He / She is not my friend.||He/she is not my friend.|
220.127.116.11.1 Interrogative sentences using interrogative words
Interrogative sentences in Indonesian are also very simple, as long as you add interrogative words before or after the sentence, and add a question mark at the end of the sentence, it is an interrogative sentence. Interrogative words can refer to interrogative pronouns in the foregoing content of this article (such as:apa,siapa,bagaimana,mana,kapan etc.) part.
|Sentence Formulas of Interrogative Words||example|
|Indonesian example||English control||Chinese meaning|
question word + subject
subject + interrogative
|ask||Apa ini?||What is this?||what is this?|
|answer||Ini ○○.||This is ○○.||This is ○○.|
|Interrogative word + subject + verb + target language||ask||Kapan kamu makan nasi?||When did you eat?||When did you/you eat?|
|answer||Aku baru saja makan.||I just ate.||Just ate.|
|subject + verb + question word||ask||Dia datang dari mana?||Where did he / she come from?||Where is he/she from?|
|answer||Dia datang dari Taiwan.||He / She come from Taiwan.||He/she is from Taiwan.|
In addition, if you use the interrogative word "mana" to ask about the place, you can place a preposition in front of it. the,di,dari etc. At this time, ke mana, di mana, dari mana, etc. can be placed at the beginning or end of the sentence.
|preposition + mana||example|
||Chinese||Indonesian example||English control||Chinese meaning|
|the||+ mana||where to go||ask||Ke mana kamu mau pergi?||Where are you going?||Where are you/you going?|
|Kamu mau pergi ke mana?|
|answer||Aku mau pergi ke Taiwan.||I am going to Taiwan.||I am going to Taiwan.|
|di||Where||ask||Di mana kamu?||Where are you?||Where are you/you?|
|Kamu di mana?|
|answer||Aku di Taiwan.||I am in Taiwan.||I am in Taiwan.|
|dari||from where||ask||Dari mana kamu datang?||Where are you from?||Where are you/you from?|
|Kamu datang dari mana?|
|answer||Aku datang dari Taiwan.||I came from Taiwan.||I'm from Taiwan.|
18.104.22.168.2 Interrogative sentences expressing permission
The above is to use "interrogative words" to form interrogative sentences, but if you want to express "permission", you can use "boleh" and "bisa". "boleh" means "yes", if the answer is affirmative, answer "boleh", if it is negative, return "tidak boleh"; "bisa" means "can" or "will", and the answer may be yes Then return "bisa", if negative, return "tidak bisa". Both must be placed at the beginning of the sentence in order to form an interrogative sentence.
|Sentence formula for "permission"||example|
|Indonesian example||English control||Chinese meaning|
|Boleh + subject + verb + target language||ask||Boleh saya ○○?||May I ○○?||Can I ○○?|
|answer (yes)||Ya, boleh. Silakan.||Yes, sure.||It can be. please!|
|answer (no)||Tidak boleh.||No.||Can't!|
|Bisa||ask||Bisa berbahasa Indonesia?||Can you speak Indonesian?||Can (you) speak Indonesian?|
|answer (yes)||Ya, bisa.||Yes, I can.||Yes, (I) will.|
|answer (no)||Tidak bisa.||No, I can't.||(I won't.|
22.214.171.124.3 Additional questions
An additional interrogative sentence is to add a negative word to the interrogative sentence, so just add the negative word "bukan" in Indonesian to form an additional interrogative sentence.
126.96.36.199 Cases (nominative, possessive, accusative)
In English, nouns take different forms in sentences depending on the case (for example: the first person singular is "I" in the subject position, "me" in the object, and "me" in the possessive case. When used, it is "my") and placed in different positions, while the Chinese subject and object are of the same type (for example: the first-person singular subject and object are both "我"), only all The case is the word "的" added (for example: the possessive case of the first person is "my").
Words (single characters) in Indonesian do not have nominative, possessive (or genitive, ling, or genitive) and accusative (or accusative, accusative) changes(Example: the subject, object, and possessive of the first person singular are "saya" or "aku"), but according to the different placement positions to identify the case of words.The following uses the different positions of "first person singular" in different sentences to represent different cases as an example.
||Examples (take the first person singular as an example)
|Indonesian example||English control||Chinese meaning|
|nominative||Mostly at the front of the sentence.||
Aku cinta kamu.
I love you.
|possessive||behind the noun.||
ini pacar aku.
This is my boyfriend / girlfriend.
Who is thisminelovers.
|accepted||direct||behind the verb.||
Kamu cinta aku.
you love me.
|indirect||Directly ahead of the pass.||
Tolong ambikan saya air putih.
Please give me a cup of boiled water.
Please helpIBring water here. /Please giveIboiled water. /Please giveIA cup of water.
In English, the tense is usually explained in the verb part, but Indonesian is the same as Chinese, the verb does not change with the tense, but some words are added to represent different tenses, so the tenses are placed Here is an explanation.
Chinese past tense, present progressive tense, and future tense can express three different tenses by adding words such as "already", "is in progress" and "will be" respectively, while in Indonesian, you only need to add "sudah" in order , "sedang", "akan", etc. can express these tenses in sequence, and the verb does not change in any way.
||explain||Indonesian example||Chinese meaning|
|Past tense||subject + sudah + verb||already done……||Aku sudah makan.||I've eaten.|
|present progressive||subject + sedang + verb||doing now...||Aku sedang makan.||I'm eating.|
|futuristic||subject + akan + verb||going to do...||Aku akan makan.||I'm going to eat.|
4.5.1 Commonly used
- Thanks! → Terima kasih.
- Thank you so much! → Terima kasih banyak.(Used in a more respectful expression, tone.)
- You're welcome! → Terima kasih kembali.
- You're welcome! → Sama-sama.
- sorry! → maaf.
- sorry! → Minta maaf.
- terribly sorry! → Mohon maaf. (used to make amends, to make a solemn apology to elders.)
- It doesn't matter. /this is nothing! → Tidak apa-apa.
- It doesn't matter. /this is nothing! → Enggak apa-apa. (Used in spoken language; "enggak" is the colloquial form of "tidak".)
- It doesn't matter. /this is nothing! → Nggak apa-apa. (Used in spoken language; "nggak" is the colloquial form of "tidak".)
- It doesn't matter. /this is nothing! → Gak apa-apa. (Used in spoken language; "gak" is a shorthand for "enggak" and "nggak".)
- (Please do not worry. → Jangan khawatir.
188.8.131.52 request, demand, please
- Please give me ○○. → Minta ○○.
- Please ○○. → Tolong ○○. (Used when asking for help.)
- Please don't ○○. → Jangan ○○.
- Please ○○. → Silakan ○○. (For persuasion.)
184.108.40.206 Other common
- Excuse me! → Permisi.
- please wait for a moment! → Tunggu sebentar.
- come on! → Semangat!
- Good morning! → Selamat pagi. (or shortened to "Pagi."; for meeting before "eleven o'clock in the morning.")
- good afternoon! → Selamat Siang.(Or simplified as "Siang."; for meeting between "12:00 noon to 2:00 pm".)
- good afternoon! → Selamat sore.(Or shortened to "Sore."; for meeting between "3pm and 6pm".)
- Good night! → Selamat malam.(Or shortened to "Malam."; for meeting after "seven o'clock in the evening".)
- Nice to meet you! / Nice to meet you! → Saya senang sekali Bertemu dengan Anda.(Used for first meeting.)
- Hello! → Halo. (Used when making or receiving a call.)
- Hello! I am ○○○! → Halo. Ini ○○○. (Used when making a phone call.)
- Hello! I am! → Halo. Saya sendiri. (Used when receiving a call.)
- haven't seen you for a long time! → Sudah lama kita Tidak Bertemu.
- welcome! → Selamat datang.
220.127.116.11 Say hello
- ○○, how are you? /○○, how are you doing recently? → Apa kabar, ○○? ("○○" can be filled with a title or name, for example:Bapak,Pak,Pak Putu,Ibu,Bu (short for Ibu),Bu Chen etc. )
- How are you? /How are you doing recently? → Apa kabar?
- good. → Baik.
- (very good. → Kabar baik. (Used in a formal response.)
- Ordinary. → Baik-baik saja.
- So-so! → Lumayan (Baik).
The term "meet" in "greetings" mentioned in the previous section is using the word "selamat" plus time (for example:pagi,Siang,sore,malam), equal to the greeting when meeting, the word "selamat" represents "safe, safe" (used for congratulations). In addition to the greetings when meeting, the word "selamat" is also commonly used in various congratulatory words in Indonesian. The meaning of the word "selamat" will not be explained again below.
18.104.22.168.1 Words of blessing
- Happy birthday! →Selamat ulang tahun.
- Happy Graduation! / Happy promotion! →Selamat atas keberhasilan Anda.
- Happy wedding! / Congratulations on the newlyweds! →Selamat menempuh hidup baru.
- I wish you success! / Hope you can succeed! →Semoga suks.
- May all go well with you! → Semoga semua berjalan dengan lancer.
22.214.171.124.2 Festival Congratulations
- Happy New Year! → Selamat tahun baru.
- Happy Eid! → Selamat (Hari Raya) Idul Fitri.
- Merry Christmas! → Selamat Hari Natal.
- Bon Voyage! → Selamat jalan.(Used when seeing off.)
- goodbye! → Selamat tinggal.(literally means "please take care!", used when you want to be apart for a while.)
- Good night! → Selamat tidur.(Used before going to bed.)
- goodbye → Sampai jumpa.
- See you next time! → Sampai jumpa lagi. (Used when separating.)
- bye bye! → Dada. (For someone who is very close, equivalent to English "bye bye!")
126.96.36.199 Asking things
- what is this? → Apa ini?
- This is ○○. → Ini ○○.
- This is not ○○. → Ini bukan ○○.
- what is that? → Apa itu?
- That is ○○. → Itu ○○.
- That is not ○○. →Itu bukan ○○.
188.8.131.52 Ask people
- Who is this guy? / Who is this? → Siapa ini?
- This person is ○○. ／This is ○○. → Ini ○○.
- This person is not ○○. / This one is not. → Ini bukan ○○.
- This is Mr. Li from Taiwan. → Ini Pak Lee dari Taiwan.
- who's that person? Who is that? → Siapa itu?
- That person is ○○. ／That person is ○○. → Itu ○○.
- That person is not ○○. ／That person is not ○○. → Itu bukan ○○.
184.108.40.206 Ask status
- how is the weather today? → Bagaimana cuaca Hari ini?
- The weather today is good! → Cuaca hari ini cerah.
220.127.116.11 Asking places
- where are you going? → Ke mana kamu mau pergi? / Kamu mau pergi ke mano?
- I am going to ○○. → Aku mau pergi ke ○○.
- Where are you? → Di mana kamu ada? / Kamu ada di mana?
- I am at ○○. → Aku ada di ○○.
- where do you come from? → Dari mana kamu? / Kamu dari mana?
- I come from ○○. → Aku dari ○○.
- Where are you from? → Dari mana kamu berasal? / Kamu berasal dari mana?
- I am from ○○. → Aku berasal dari ○○.
- where do you live → Tinggal di mana? / Di mana tinggal?
- I live in ○○. → Saya tinggal di ○○.
18.104.22.168 Asking time
- what time is it? /what time is it now? → jam berapa? / Sekarang jam berapa? / Jam berapa sekarang?
- ○○ am. → Jam ○○ pagi. (○○ can fill in numbers.)
- It is ○○ o'clock in the afternoon. → Sekarang jam ○○ sore.
- Now ○○ point △△ minute. → Sekarang jam ○○ △△ menit.
- It is now ○○:△△ in the morning. → Sekarang jam ○○ △△ menit pagi.
- It's half past ○○ in the afternoon. → Sekarang jam setengah [○○ + 1]. (See example sentences below for examples.)
- It's seven thirty in the afternoon. → Sekarang jam tujuh tiga puluh menit sore.
- It's seven thirty in the afternoon. → Sekarang jam setengah delapan sore. (literally means "half of eight o'clock in the afternoon now", which means "half past seven".)
- Can I ○○? → Boleh saya ○○?
- Yes, it's OK. please! → Ya, boleh. Silakan.
- Can't! → Titak boleh.
- Can you ○○? → Bisa ○○?
- Yes, I will. → Ya, bisa.
- I won't. → Tidak bisa.
- is true. → Ya.
- no. → Tidak. (When negating a verb or adjective.)
- no. → Bukan. (When negating a noun or pronoun.)
- have. → Ada.
- No. → Tidak ada.
- I am not ○○. → Saya bukan ○○.
- That's right! → Betul.
- Of course! → Tentu saja.
- I understand. /I know. /I see. → Saya mengerti.
- I don't quite understand. /I am not very sure. /I do not understand. /I do not quite understand. → Saya Kurang mengerti.
- I don't know very well. → Saya kurang tahu.
- I have no idea. →Saya tidak tahu.
- I haven't ○○ yet. ／I am not yet ○○. →Saya belum ○○.
- Can. → Boleh.
- no. → Tidak boleh.
- able. →Bisa
- cannot. →Tidak bisa.
In Chinese, the interrogative word for asking someone else's name is usually asked with the word "what" (for example: what is his name?, what is his name?), but in Indonesian, when asking someone's name, then is to use "siapa" to ask instead of "apa". In addition, "namaya" in Indonesian is equivalent to "nama dia", which means "his/her name".
- Sir, what is your name? → Siapa nama Bapak? (To male elders or when meeting for the first time.)
- Miss, what is your name? → Siapa nama Ibu? (For female elders or when meeting for the first time.)
- Excuse me! Sir, what is your name? → Permisi Pak, namanya siapa? (To a male elder or when meeting for the first time.)
- Excuse me! Miss, what is your name? → Permisi Bu, namanya siapa? (To female elders or when meeting for the first time.)
- Sir, what is your name? → Siapa nama Anda, Pak?
- Miss, what is your name? Siapa nama Anda, Bu?
- May I have your name? → Siapa nama kamu? / Nama kamu siapa? (When an elder asks a younger person, or an older person asks a younger person.)
- What is his/her name? → Siapa namanya? / Namanya Siapa?
- My name is ○○. → Nama saya ○○.
- Where do you work? → Kamu bekerja di mana?
- I work at ○○. → Aku bekerja di ○○.
- What is your occupation? → Apa pekerjaan Anda?
- I am ○○. → Saya ○○.
- I am △△ at ○○. → Aku berkerja di ○○ Sebagai △△.
- Introduce to you! /Let me introduce you! → mari saya kenalkan.
- This is ○○. →Ini ○○.
- This is ○○ from △△. →Ini ○○ dari △△.
- I am from ○○. → Saya orang ○○. (○○ can fill in the country or region.)
5 Conclusion and learning experience
Before writing this article, the author did not study Indonesian, but when I learned about the background of various languages, I found that many materials indicated that Indonesian is a very easy to learn language. I have read many languages, I am very curious why so many reviews say that Indonesian is very simple compared to other languages, so I bought a book on Indonesian and studied it a little bit.How simple is it.
After reading a lot of information and teaching Indonesian in books, I found that Indonesian is indeed simpler than other languages. From the most basic characters, only the twenty-six letters that are exactly the same as in English are needed, and the pronunciation rules are very consistent with the spelling of the characters. It is not as complicated, so many exceptions, and inconsistent as the pinyin rules, and the part of speech is almost the same. There is no change. Nouns have three forms and case changes, verbs have tense changes, etc. like English. The grammar is indeed much simpler.
But for native Chinese learners, Indonesian is not easy in any part. I believe that many people feel that the most difficult part is the pronunciation of the alveolar trill of the letter "r". I knew that Spanish has alveolar trill before, so I learned it deliberately (at that time, I learned the French uvular trill "r", which is easier to pronounce, and found that the pronunciation is similar, and I learned alveolar trill by slightly changing the pronunciation position) , but after all, it is still a bit difficult for learners who do not have this sound in their mother tongue. It is very difficult to pronounce this sound anytime and anywhere. It still needs more practice to be able to pronounce this sound smoothly and casually.
Finally, in addition to learning a simple language spoken by more than 200 million people at the same time, I also learned about the language background and cultural history of Indonesia and Malaysia. This is an area of knowledge that has not been touched before. It is an unexpected gain and experience.
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